Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Psychology unit 3: Sensation and Perception

No description
by

Joe Berchtold

on 28 April 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Psychology unit 3: Sensation and Perception

Sensation
Perception
&
the acquiring of information from the environment through the senses
Sight
Smell
Hearing
Taste
Touch
Thresholds
Vision: a single candle from 30 miles away on a clear dark night.
Smell: a drop of perfume diffused in a 3-room apartment
Taste: a single teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
Hearing: a watch’s tick from 20 feet away in a quiet room.
Touch: a bee’s wing falling on your cheek from 1 cm away.
There is a minimum amount of each stimulus that humans can recognize as a sensation.

(The standard is that the stimulus should be recognized 50% of the time)
Sensory Adaptation
the smallest amount of change in stimulus needed to be noticed as a change
The larger a stimulus is, the more change is needed to be noticed.
If we are constantly exposed to a stimulus, eventually we will fail to notice it
Species
Number of Scent Receptors
Humans
5 million
Dachshund
125 million
Fox Terrier
147 million
Beagle
225 million
German Shepherd
225 million
Bloodhound
300 million
Subliminal Messages
When our senses pick up and process stimuli, but without our conscious awareness.
Even though these stimuli are outside our awareness, they can still effect our behavhior
Attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on only one particular stimulus
failure to notice seemingly obvious changes in the environment
Selective attention
Change blindness
Transduction
turning environmental information into neural impulses
Sight: transduction occurs within the eye – where neural impulses are created from
light waves
Hearing: transduction occurs within the ear – neural impulses are created from
sound waves
Smell: occurs within the nose – created from a chemical reaction (
gas molecules
)
Touch: occurs within the skin – created from
physical contact
Taste: occurs on the tongue – created from a chemical reaction with
what we ingest
(includes pressure, pain, and temperature)
Kinesthetic Sense
(also known as proprioception)
Vestibular Sense
orientation of the body in the world
(balance)
orientation of the body to itself and all of it's parts
(coordination)
Is the information we get from our senses reliable?


Do we perceive the world as it truly is?
the process through which we interpret and consciously experience information from the senses
It is estimated that we receive 11,000,000 pieces of information per second

Of that information, we can only consciously attend to 40 pieces at a time
Vision
Touch
Hearing
Smell
Taste
Amount we are consciously aware of
Absolute Threshold
Difference Threshold
Weber's Law
For example...
Let's say my classroom is empty
Then these two girls come in and start talking and doing homework
I'm clearly going to notice the increase in noise, right?
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
My classroom is very full and VERY loud
The same two girls from before enter and starting talking/doing homework
Think I'll notice the change in noise this time?
You can feel them now, but were you really conscious of that feeling before?
Pay attention to how your clothes feel on your body right now.
Wanna know a secret?
It turns out that subliminal messages...don't really work
Opponent-Process Theory
Outside layer of eye
Bends light toward center of the eye
The colored part of your eye
it shrinks or grows to control how much light gets in
the hole in the iris through which light enters the eye
The lens can bend, allowing us to focus on things that are both close and far away
Almost the entire back of they eye is covered by the retina
The retina contains all of our rods and cones
C
o
n
e
s
R
o
d
s
Rods and cones are two types of photoreceptors
Photoreceptors

translate

light

into

electrical

impulse
Rods deal with low light conditions
Cones
deal

with

bright

light,

detail
and
color
Humans have three different kinds of cones
Red
Blue
Green
Various combinations of these three colors make up the visible spectrum
Point on the back of the eye where the majority of light from outside hits
The fovea also contains the highest concentration of cones
the nerve through which all of the eyes signals are sent to the brain
Point just in front of the optic nerve where there no rods or cones whatsoever. Therefore, you are blind in that spot
Trichromatic Theory of color
Blue
Yellow
Green
Red
Black
White
The amount of light being received.
Characteristics of color
Photoreceptor #1
Photoreceptor #2
Photoreceptor #3
This theory lines up better with color blindness

3 types of Color blindness
Green
Red
Blue
Yellow
Mono
chromatic
Brightness
Saturation
The purity of the color.
Is it only one wavelength being received or a mixture?
Hue
The name of the color, which is the wavelength being received
Auditory Canal
Ear Drum
Hammer
Anvil
Stirrup
Cochlea
Cilia
Pressure
Temperature
Pain
The sense of touch as we normally think of it is a result of several different kinds of sense receptors, all located within the skin
(and a few other places)
the frequency of the waves
Timbre
the complexity of the waves
Intensity
the height of the waves
(we register it as loudness)
Pitch
Characteristics of Sound
Deafness
Cilia
Hammer, Anvil, and/or Stirrup
Auditory Nerve
Occurs as a result of problems with one of 3 areas...
...is the body's early warning system
Gate Control Theory
Signals from all skin receptors have to take the same route up the spinal cord to the brain.
If there are other signals competing with the pain signals, our experience of pain will be less
It's like two people trying to squeeze through a door at the same time
Cilia
Olfactory Bulb
Olfactory Nerve
The tongue is covered with many little bumps called Fungiform Papillae, on which are your taste buds. Your taste buds can detect 5 different flavors: sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (savory)
gas molecules enter through nostril
molecules get caught in mucus

they sit there until the nose can process them
Gestalt principles
General rules that describe how we organize/group sensory information
Similarity: We tend to see similar objects as part of the same thing
Continuation: We expect that a line will continue the way it is going, not suddenly change direction
Proximity: We tend to see objects that are close together as part of the same thing
Closure: We can mentally connect the dots to see one picture instead of several parts
Simplicity: We tend to see what is easiest to see
What do you See?
Figure Ground
In everything we see, there has to be a figure and a ground. In these pictures, you can alternate them
We tend to believe that things move in a consistent manner
Perceptual Constants
In order to simplify our world, our brain makes us perceive some things as constant and unchanging.
Once the size of an object is known we believe that size to remain the same.

So the approaching ball isn’t getting bigger, it is just getting closer.
Once the color of an object is known we believe that color to stay the same regardless of environmental change.
The same is true of light and shadow of an object
SIZE
C
o
l
o
r
Brightness
Space and movement
Light and Shadow
Interposition
Height
SIZE
Relative
Relative
&
Brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadows appear further away
1.
2.
If two objects overlap, we assume that the one that is partially covered must be further away
If something is bigger, we usually think it is closer
If something is higher up, we usually see it as farther away
Retinal disparity
The closer an object is the more detail we notice
Visual texture
The Visual Cliff
Our eyes actually receive two slightly different images, and our brains calculate depth using the differences between the two
Interestingly, this works in reverse with things above the horizon
Retinal Disparity is used to make 3D films
Depth Perception
Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)
the ability to read someone else’s mind
The perception of information not gained through the regular human senses.
The ability to move an object without touching it
perceiving objects without sensory information
The ability to see the future
Telekinesis
Clairvoyance
Telepathy
Precognition
Theories of Color Vision
Full transcript