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Baking 101

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jamie sigua

on 5 September 2012

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Transcript of Baking 101


To substitute for a given ingredient in a recipe, you should first know its function or its use in the recipe. Flour gives the muffins or cakes its volume and structure. The flour browns during the baking process so the finished product will usually have a golden brown color. It’s also high in starch which is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet. Flour The following is a list of primary ingredients used in baking along with a description of the function each will perform within the products being created . Substitutions can be made, which will vary the proportions of the ingredients being used in a recipe. This will alter the texture and flavor of the finished product. Let's start Different types of flours have different jobs. Self-rising flour will make the batter rise when baking. It has a combination of plain flour and various raising agents. These include sodium and calcium phosphates, and sodium carbonate. If you just use all purpose flour than you would need to add 2 of "bi-carbonate soda" for every 250grams. Leavening agents A leavening agent (also leavening or leaven) is any one of a number of substances used in dough and batters that causes a foaming action which lightens and softens the finished product. The leavening agent incorporates gas bubbles into the dough—this may be air incorporated by mechanical means, but usually it is carbon dioxide produced by biological agents, or by chemical agents reacting with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour mixes with the water in the dough to form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or other polysaccharides like pentosans or xanthan gum), then gelatinizes and "sets"; the holes left by the gas bubbles remain. Liquid When liquid is added, it can cause chemical reactions, which typically wouldn't happen by combining the dry ingredients. Not only will it cause the chemical reactions (which most often cause the product to rise), it also helps add moisture to the baked goods, so they won't be too dry and crumbly. Shortening The function of shortening in baking is to give tenderness to the baked product. Without shortening, dough of flour and water is tough when baked. Shortening coats the flour particles, so that they do not stick together, thus shortening provides tenderness, improved texture, better eating quality, and also increases the nutritive value of foods. now that we know the uses of the ingredients..
we can now proceed to 1tbsp. Flour (used as thickener) Can be Substituted by:-1/2 tbsp cornstarch
-potato starch
-rice arrowroot-1 tbsp quick-cooking tapioca 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour can be substituted by:-1 cup unsifted all-purpose flour minus 1 tbsp. 1 cup sifted cake flour can be substituted by:-7/8 sifted all-purpose flour, or 1 cup minus 2 tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour 1 cup corn syrup can be substituted by:
-1 cup sugar plus ¼ liquid ( liquid that is called for in the recipe) 1 cup honey can be substituted by:
-1 ¼ cups sugar plus ¼ liquid 1 ounce chocolate Can be substituted by:
-3 T butter plus about 7/8 cup milk 1 cup butter Can be substituted by:
-1 cup margarine
-7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat plus ½ tsp. salt
-7/8 cup lard plus ½ tsp. salt 1 cup coffee cream (20%) Can be substituted by:
-3 T butter plus about 7/8 cup milk Sweeteners small amounts, added sugar helps yeast begin producing gas for raising yeast dough
in large amounts slows yeast fermentation
tenderizes dough and batter products and may help the baked product to brown
causes spreading to occur during baking
Reducing the amount of sugar by more than 1/3 can cause loss of tenderness, moisture, browning, and sweetness 1 cup heavy cream (40%) Can be substituted by:
-1/3cup butter plus about ¾ cup milk 1 cup whole milk Can be substituted by:
-1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 ½ tsp. butter or margarine
-½ cup evaporated milk plus ½ cup water
-¼ cup sifted dry whole milk powder plus 7/8 cup water 1 cup milk Can be substituted by:
-3 tbsp. sifted regular nonfat dry milk plus 1 cup minus 1 tbsp. water
-1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 1 cup minus 1 tbsp. water 1 cup butter milk or sour milk Can be substituted by:
-1 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice plus enough sweet milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5 mins.)
-1 ¾ tsp. cream of tartar plus 1 cup sweet milk 1 tsp. baking powder Can be substituted by:
-¼ tsp. baking powder soda plus 5/8 tsp. cream of tartar
- ¼ tsp. baking soda plus ½ cup fully soured milk or buttermilk
-¼ tsp. baking soda plus ½ tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make ½ cup
-¼ tsp. baking soda plus ¼ to ½ cup molasses 1 cup fresh milk Can be substituted by:
-½ evaporated milk and ½ cup water 1 tbsp active dry yeast Can be substituted by:
-1 pkg. active dry yeast
-1 compressed yeast cake 1 lb. dried fruits
1 cup eggs (whole)
1 cup egg whites
1 cup egg yolks
1 lb. cheese
1 medium lemon
1 medium orange
1 lb. butter or shortening
1 lb. sifted confectioner’s sugar
1 lb. brown sugar
1 lb. nuts
1 square chocolate 2 cups
5 medium
8 medium eggs
12-14 medium eggs
4 cups, grated
3 tbsp. juice
¼ cup juice
2 ½ cup
3 ½ cups
2 ¼ cups
4 ½ cups
3T cocoa plus 1tbsp to 1 tsp. shortening Oven Temperature Very slow oven 250-275F
Slow oven 300-325F
Moderated oven 350-375F
Hot oven 400-450F
Very hot oven 475 and up REMINDER: Proper Selection & Uses of Food Alternates end of presentation
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