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Review: Paleolithic to Civilization

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by

Christene Stratman

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of Review: Paleolithic to Civilization

Paleolithic Era
2.6 million--10,000 B.C.E

Neolithic Era
Transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer/herders
First Civilizations
Complex Religion (Vedas)
Early Civs
Sumerian (Mesopotamia)
Sumerian Civ
Religion
Basic religion: mystical rather than rule-based
Review: Paleolithic to Civilization
2.6 Million
First hominids develop
100,000-60,000 B.C.E
Homo Sapiens (modern humans) originate in Africa and migrate out
17,000 B.C.E
Lascaux Cave drawings
110,000 B.C.E
Ice Age Begins
12,000 B.C.E
End of the Ice Age
"Out of Africa" Theory
Domestication of Fire
Environmental Impact
Extinction of Megafauna (large animals)
Hunter-gatherers
10,000 B.C.E--4,000/2,000 B.C.E
Burial of the dead
Fertility goddess statues
Society
Men and women more equal than at any other time
Not much difference between social groups
Neolithic Revolution
Crops cultivated & domesticated
Surplus!!!
Sedentary Villages
staying in one place!
Catal Huyuk
Pastoral Societies
herded animals
more nomadic
Agriculture--> Reliable and Increased Food Supply--> population growth & towns--> specialization of labor-->social stratification
Unifying Government (Pharaoh)
Public Works (sewage system)
Social Stratification (Caste system)
Specialization of labor (priests, warriors, farmers)
Written language (Cuneiform)
Culture (arts, education)
Presence of Cities (Ur)
Egyptian (Nile)
Harappan (Indus River)
Yellow River
Ziggurats
: temples designated to the chief god/goddess
Religious, economic, & political center of city
City-States
a state with political and economic control of a city and the surrounding countryside
Cuneiform: Wedge-shaped writing
Clay tablets
Tigris & Euphrates
Unpredictable flooding
few natural barriers=more invaders
Egypt
Divine kings=Pharaohs
Nile River + natural Barriers=Stability
Burial practices
Harappan Civilization
Mohenjo-Daro
Well-planned cities (sewage system)
mysterious language
Indus River
Yellow River Civ
violent, unpredictable flooding
First historical dynasty=Shang
Shang Bronzework
Shang Oracle Bones
Yellow River=China's Sorrow
silt deposits: dangerous & life-giving
Metallurgy
the refinement & use of metal
circa 7,000 B.C.E Neolithic villages in Turkey began to use Copper
2,800 B.C.E
The Bronze Age: the age of civilization
Full transcript