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ESL Teaching Methods

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Ruby Whitener

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of ESL Teaching Methods

Pros & Cons of TPR Total Physical Response Method Communication in social settings
Academic success in school
Opportunity to excel in school at rates comparable to peers
Learn to use language in culturally and socially appropriate ways
Students of many languages in one classroom
Students of many developmental levels
Teaches English through academic subjects
English is the only language of instruction The Second Language Classroom: ESL Teaching Methods Developed by Dr. James J. Asher, a psychology professor at San Jose University. TPR, is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it focuses on teaching language through physical movement. TPR research opened up the concept that for children and adults acquiring another language in school, success can be assured if comprehension is developed before speaking (Cook, 2001). Characteristics of TPR The coordination of speech and action facilitates learning. Speaking is delayed until comprehension skills are established. Effective language learning takes place in low stress environment. The role of the teacher is central. S/he chooses the appropriate commands to introduce vocabulary and structure. The learner is a listener and a performer responding to commands individually or collectively. Task-based Learning Method defined. In task-based learning, the tasks are
central to the learning activity. Originally
developed by N Prabhu in Bangladore,
southern India, it is based on the belief
that students may learn more effectively
when their minds are focused on the
task, rather than on the language they
are using. The method is compatible with new approaches to language learning as it stresses the importance to meaning rather than form (Mohammed, 28). It gives students the freedom to decide when they feel confident enough to speak up in class as opposed to being forced to. It involves both left and right-brained learning. TPR can be ineffective if the teacher uses it for a long period of time. TPR deals with only the beginning stages of language learning Not everything can be physically acted out. Task-based Learning Model In the model of task-based learning described by Jane Willis, the traditional PPP (presentation, practice, production) lesson is reversed. The students start with the task. When they have completed it, the teacher draws attention to the language used, making corrections and adjustments to the students' performance. In A Framework for Task-Based Learning, Jane Willis presents a three stage process:

Pre-task - Introduction to the topic and task.

Task cycle - Task planning and report

Language focus - Analysis and practice. Task-based learning effectiveness. Task-based learning can be very effective at
Intermediate levels and beyond, but many teachers question
its usefulness at lower levels. The methodology requires
a change in the traditional teacher's role. The teacher does
not introduce and 'present' language or interfere ('help') during the
task cycle. The teacher is an observer
during the task phase and becomes a language informant
only during the 'language focus' stage. How to Teach Content-Based ESL Reliance on non-verbal communication Simplified language and content Regular repetition and summarizing Regular student assessment for understanding Characteristics of Content-ESL Purpose: REFERENCES Mohammed, R. (28, July 2009). Total physical response. Retrieved from http://myenglishpages.com/blog/total-physical-response/ Communicative Language Teaching Origins Interest in and development of communicative-style teaching mushroomed in the 1970s; authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became quite popular. In the intervening years, the communicative approach has been adapted to the elementary, middle, secondary, and post-secondary levels, and the underlying philosophy has spawned different teaching methods known under a variety of names, including notional-functional, teaching for proficiency, proficiency-based instruction, and communicative language teaching. Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audiolingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. Communicative Language Teaching Defined Margie S. Berns, an expert in the field of communicative language teaching, writes in explaining Firth's view that "language is interaction; it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. In this light, language study has to look at the use (function) of language in context, both its linguistic context (what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse) and its social, or situational, context (who is speaking, what their social roles are, why they have come together to speak)" (Berns, 1984, p. 5). Communicative Language Teaching explanation.
http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/gallow01.html Cook, B. (2001). What is tpr?. Retrieved from http://www.tprsource.com/asher.htm Goals of Content ESL
Main goal is to teach students English
Maintains and supports student’s native language along with the culture
Supports merging the student into the mainstream of society and school
Constructs and retains academic advancement Effectiveness of Content ESL
Effectiveness judged by eye of the beholder
Parent and teacher surveys found ESL programs successful (93.6% parents, 73.81% teachers)
High quality teaching methods, competent strategies, and worthy evaluations of program’s effectiveness should be reviewed annually to produce an effective ESL program
ESL programs that do not accommodate the students’ needs and do not use proper teaching strategies can lead to frustration in students, non-participation, and even dropping-out Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Buffalo, NY. Multilingual Matters

Littleton, M. and Schroth, G. The Administration and Supervision of Special Programs in Education.
Retrieved from https://ecampus.unt.edu/webct/urw/tp0.lc5122011/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct

Walling, D. R. (1993). English as a Second Language: 25 Questions and Answers.
Bloomington, IN : Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Perez, C. L. & Karr-Kidwell, P. (1995). Elementary Bilingual and ESL Education Program and Their Effectiveness within Schools. A Descriptive Study, Teaching Methods, and Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED388036.pdf http://www.polleverywhere.com/my/polls Activity
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