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Somalia: A Failed State
Transcript of Somalia: A Failed State
A Failed State Presented by:
Tommy Cleveland The Horn of Africa Political Factions, 2012 Definition of Failed State Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti
Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Juba River, Shabelle River Physical and Geopolitical Borders Timeline of Somali History "Failed States are states that cannot control much of their own territories or borders, and exist as states principally in name only. They lack the ability to provide basic services to their populations and do not have much of the consent of the governed. Core functions, notably security, are frequently privatized. Warlords, criminal organizations, and private entrepreneurs assume much of the state’s traditional functions, favoring some portion of the population and not favoring others. Failed states suffer from enduring internal violence" -National Strategy Information Center Failed State Index:
http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=fsi2012 Created by Fund For Peace, a nonprofit, non-governmental, educating organization that aims to prevent violence and promote sustainable development
12 Indicators are used within to measure a countries status;
2.Refugees and Internally-Displaced Persons
4.Migration and Brain Drain
5.Uneven economic development
6.Poverty and Economic decline
Political and Military Indicators
9.Human Rights and Rule of Law
12.External Intervention Effects of a Failed State Pollution
Loss of international integrity
Lack of basic services (sanitation, fresh water, health care) Somali Pirates In response to the toxic dumping, causing death to their people and sea life, many fishermen have turned to piracy in order to protect and preserve their beaches and fishing territories Pollution Due to the lack of an effective government, Somalia's coastal region has been the site of illegal dumping of toxic waste products. Their waters have become the site of an international free for all These toxic wastes have created illnesses among the Somali people causing many to die and the sea life to perish Somali Pirate- Most are fishermen who turned to piracy in order to protect their fishing territories Somali Pirates They operate from ports and from mother ships. The mother ships enable them to travel further out at sea They use faster, smaller vessels to approach slower moving ships and hold them up for ransom Somali Pirates Somali pirate attacks have decrease by 65%.
This is largely due to the presence of navies and armed guards
NATO and the UN agreed to send in military ships in order to stop piracy Somali People Major Clans
>competition http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/csm-photo-galleries-images/in-pictures-images/somali-pirate-adds/03-add/9627076-1-eng-US/03-add_full_600x400.jpg Although some also depend on piracy as a source of income as Somalia is in poverty Al-Shabaab Al-Shabaab means The Youth in Arabic
Formed as a radical group off of the Union of Islamic Courts in 2006
Al-Shabaab has been linked to the terrorist group Al-Qaeda
Joined al-Qaeda in February 2012
Leader- Ahmed Abdi Godane
Frequently carries out suicide attacks in Mogadishu
Their presence puts fear into the Somali people
Goal: Expand Somalia by adding northeastern Kenya, Ethiopia's Ogaden region, and Djibouti Solutions Education
Funding for infrastructure, healthcare
Countries interested in developing under developed communities could donate
Decrease presence of Al-Shabaab
Increase job opportunities for Somali population
International consensus/treaty to cease pollution of Somali waters Who is Helping? The UN and the African Union are working together supporting the Transitional Federal Government in setting up elections
Tried to provide regional and civil society actors a voice in development of security, constitution, reconciliation and good governance within Somalia
BUT a number of the agreed deadlines have been missed Who is Helping? The European Union and the United Nations responded to the piracy by launching anti-piracy missions
The objectives were to provide protection for the World Food Program and merchant ships using whatever means possible to prevent a high seas armed robbery Region of Somali Pirate Attacks Jubba River and Shebelle River Questions? The Journey... Food and Water Crisis Jilal - December-March (Driest)
Gu - April-June (Main Rainy)
Xagaa - July-September (Dry)
Dayr - October-December (Rainy) Who has access to clean water? -Roughly 20%
-Not every village has a communal water-well
-Valuable wells guarded by warlords. Thousands flee their villages in Somalia in hopes of reaching refugee camps in neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia. Dadaab Refugee Camp -UN budget can host 90,000 in Dadaab.
-Today host about 400,000 refugees. Conceptual Borders Major Languages: Somali
Major Religions: Poverty Islamist extremists (al-Shabaab)
extremely low profile Christian population Islam (most are Suuni Muslim) Poverty Average income is less than $600 per year
No access to clean water
Homes are made from sheets
They are dependent on the aid from the World Food Program Humanitarian Insecurity -Presence of Militia
-Inland Somalis receive very little aid or none at all. Illegal fishing was also a problem due to the lack of a coast guard Piracy is a conceptual border because they are defending their territories from foreign ships dumping toxic wastes and from illegal fishing Global Cooperation Humanitarian Initiative Just Relief Aid (Kenya) Humanitarian Relief (Turkey) Timeline of Somali History cont'd. IHH Turkey Conceptual Borders -Al-Shabbab
(Central/Southern Somalia) 99.99% Muslim Ras Kamboni Brigades (Southern Somalia) The Horn of Africa has been home to Somalians since ancient times. Mogadishu emerged as an Arab settlement in the 10th century. 1875-1941: Egypt, France, Britain, and Italy all gain footholds in Somali territory. French territory later becomes Djibouti, Britain and Italy gain land as protectorates.
1956-Italian Somaliland granted general autonomy
1960- Merge and become independent, United Republic of Somalia 1960-1991: Border disputes with Kenya and Ehtiopia; severe drought causes widespread starvation; presidential assasinations; Mohammad Siad Barre is ousted from power
1991-2002: Former British Somaliland declare unilateral independence; U.S./UN Peacekeeping missions fail; Puntland declares autonomy; clan leaders elect new president but Somali warlords backed by Ethiopia plan to set up their own government; more drought
2002-2006: Tsunami waves hit Somali coast, hundreds dead, tens of thousands displaced; assassination attempt on Prime Minister fails; rival militias erupt in worst violence in over a decade; first known suicide bombing; drought; Islamist tensions with Ethiopia 2006-2012: Islamists lose stronghold, humanitarian crisis grows; suspected al-Queda targets in Puntland; U.S. military involvement; Somali pirates began hijacking ships with oil, tanks; Al-Shabaab defeats militias, formally declares alliance with al-Queda; tensions between president and prime minister; government executions; Kenya closes border; complete crop failure due to lack of rain causes rising levels of malnutrition; UN declares famine in two areas of Somalia; Kenyan and Ethiopian troops advance on militias; pro-government forces advance on al-Shabab