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Chapter 4


Kelsey Hall

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 4

Experience of Empire
18th century America,
1680-1763 William Byrd was a Tidewater planter that accepted a commission to help survey a disputed boundary with North Carolina. He kept a journal during this journey and that journal made a classic of early American literature. Anglo-American Identity: Tensions in the Backcountry: Scots-Irish settlers were lowland Scottish Presbyterians from Catholic Ireland.
English officials discriminated against these people.
English passed laws that placed the Scots-Irish at a disadvantage when they traded in England; they taxed them unreasonably high.
The Scots-Irish immigrated to America in hope to find the freedom and prosperity that had been denied to them in Ireland.
They squatted on whatever land looked best and wherever they located, they challenged established authority. Scots-Irish and Germans in Search for a Better Life: The Spanish struggled to control a vast northern frontier until 1821, when Mexico declared Independence from Madrid. The Spanish empire included San Francisco and San Diego in California; Santa Fe, New Mexico; San Antonio, Texas; and St. Augustine, Florida. Here, European colonists mixed with peoples of other races and backgrounds to form multicultural societies.
In late 16th century, Juan de Onate led Spanish settlers to establish European communities north of the Rio Grande. The Pueblo Indians resisted the invasion of colonists, soldiers, and missionaries, and in a major rebellion in 1680 led by El Pope, the native peoples drove the whites out of New Mexico. The Spanish didn't reconquer this fiercely contested area until 1692.
Spain colonized St. Augustine Florida in 1565. This was the 1st permanent European settlement in what would become the United States, predating the founding of Jamestown and Plymouth by decades.
In contrast to the English frontier settlements, the Spanish outposts in North America grew slowly.
Spanish males formed relationships with Indian women, becoming mestizo fathers, and having children of mixed race.
Encounters with Spanish soldiers, priests, and traders altered Native American cultures. Even when the Indians' material conditions changed, they resisted to convert to Catholicism.
The Pueblo maintained their own religious forms at their personal risk.
The Spanish empire never had the resources necessary to secure the northern frontier. The small military posts were intended to discourage other European powers from taking territory claimed by Spain. Spanish Borderlands: The site of the most intense and creative contact between the races had shifted to the huge territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, where several hundred thousand Native Americans made their homes.
Some natives were refugees and had lost so many people that they could no longer sustain an independent cultural identity.
Stronger groups of Indians like the Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, and Shawnee, generally welcomed the refugees. The strangers were formally adopted to replace relatives killed in battle or taken by sickness.
Middle ground- A geographical area where 2 district cultures interacted with neither holding a clear upper hand. The middle ground concept helps us understand how the Indians held their own in the backcountry. Native Americans relied on white traders, the French and English, to provide essential metal goods and weapons. The goal of the Indian confederacies was to maintain a strong independent voice in commercial exchanges to play the French against the British. The survival of the middle ground depended ultimately on factors that the Natives had little control of. Imperial competition between France and Great Britain enhanced the Indians' bargaining position. After the British defeated the French in 1763, the Indians no longer received the same concerned attention. Natives Stake Out a Middle
Ground: The rapid growth of an urban worldwide culture impressed commentators and Americans began to participate in a consumer marketplace. American Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin: Britain's mainland colonies were transformed and their population grew at unprecedented rates. Colonial Americans were less isolated from one another. After 1690, men and women expanded their cultural horizons, becoming part of a larger Anglo-American empire.
Political, commercial, and military links that brought the colonists into more frequent contact with Britain also made them more aware of other colonists.
It was within an expanding, prosperous empire that they first began to seriously consider what it meant to be an American. Total white population of Britain's main 13 colonies rose from 250,000 in 1700 to 2,150,000 in 1770, an annual growth rate of 3%. Natural reproduction was responsible for most of the growth. Most families had children who lived long enough to have children of their own. The population was also becoming more dispersed and heterogeneous. English settlers were in search of religious sanctuary or instant wealth. Backcountry- the edge of settlement extending from western Pennsylvania to Georgia. Settlers plunged into this complex, fluid. yet violent society because they found it far more demanding to survive on the British frontier. More than 100,000 Germans migrated to America.
Some migrated to find religious toleration some migrated to improve their material lives.
With Francis Daniel Pastorius, Mennonites established a prosperous community in Pennsylvania known as Germantown.
Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg helped German Lutherans through a difficult cultural adjustment.
Germans and Scots-Irish pushed into Shenandoah Valley, and into the backcountry of Virginia and the Carolinas.
They preferred to be left alone and petitioned for assistance during wars against Indians.
They often found themselves living beyond the effective authority of colonial governments. The American Enlightenment was known as an "Age of Reason." During this period, a body of new, often radical, ideas swept through the salons and universities, altering how educated Europeans thought about God, nature, & society.
Enlightenment- Philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe in the 18th century, it stressed the use of reason to solve social and scientific problems.
This intellectual revolution involved the work of the men Newton, Locke, Voltaire, and Hume.
Philosophers of the Enlightenment replaced the concept of original sin with a much more optimistic view of human nature. It was possible to achieve perfection in this world. For many Americans, the Enlightenment was focused on a search for useful knowledge, ideas, and inventions to improve the quality of human life. While they made few amazing discoveries, they did encourage their countrymen to apply reason to the solution of social and political problems. (1706-1790) A fellow philosopher, a person of reason and science, a role that he self-consciously cultivated when he visited England and France later in life. He devoted himself to the pursuit of useful knowledge, ideas that would increase the happiness of his fellow Americans. His investigation of electricity brought him world fame, but he was never satisfied with his work in this field until it yielded practical application. In 1756, he invented the lightning rod and he also designed an efficient stove that's still used today. Franklin promoted the spread of reason. The colonial economy kept pace with the stunning growth in population. Even with so many additional people to feed and clothe, the per capita income didn't decline. Abundant land and the growth of agriculture accounted for their economic success. Americans maintained a high level of individual prosperity without developing an industrial base.
Colonial exports flowed along well-established routes. American exports went to Britain and the Navigation Acts were still in effect. Furs were added to the restricted list in 1722. The White Pines Acts, the Molasses Act (Sugar Act), and the Hat and Felt Acts were passed to attempt to limit the production of colonial goods that competed with British exports.
The emerging consumer society in Britain was creating a new generation of buyers who possessed enough income to purchase American goods. This rising demand was the major market force shaping the colonial economy. Economic Transformation: Consumer revolution- Period between 1740-1770 when English exports to the American colonies increased by 360 percent to satisfy Americans' demand for consumer goods.
The pace of the British economy picked up dramatically after 1690. Small factories produced certain goods more efficiently and more cheaply than the colonists could. The availability of these products altered the lives of most Americans, even those with modest incomes.
British industrialization undercut American handicraft and folk art.
British merchants offered generous credit to help Americans. The colonists deferred final payment by paying interest on their debts. The American debt continued to grow and the balance-of-payments problem was clear and very serious.
Intercoastal trade also increased. 30% of colonists was involved in "coastwide" commerce. Backcountry farmers carried goods down an old Iroquois trail that became known as the Great Wagon Road in the Germans "wagons of empire."
The shifting patterns of trade had immense effects on the development of an American culture. The flood of British imports eroded to local and regional identities. The expanding coastal and overland trade brought colonists of different backgrounds into more frequent contact. Ships dispersed Americans with a means to exchange ideas and experiences on a more regular basis. Birth of a Consumer Society: A "new birth" in Christ that caused men and women of all backgrounds to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society.
Many Americans complained that organized religion had lost vitality. Ministers no longer touched hearts.
The Great Awakening arrived unexpectedly in Northampton, Massachusetts by Jonathan Edwards. Edwards accepted traditional teachings of Calvinism, reminding people that God determined their eternal fate. They were totally dependent on God's will.
George Whitefield, a young inspiring preacher from England who toured the colonies from New Hampshire to Georgia, possessed the dynamic personality to sustain the revival. Whitefield was an extraordinary effective public speaker. He was Calvinist but welcomed all Protestants. He was a brilliant entrepreneur and possessed an almost natural sense of how to turn this thriving consumer society to his own advantage. A widespread evangelical religious revival movement of the mid-1700s that divided congregations and weakened the authority of established churches in the colonies. Great Awakening: Itinerant preachers traveled from settlements to spread their message.
Gilbert Tennent set off a storm of protest from established ministers who were insulted by assertions that they didn't understand true religion. Some people liked Tennent and some didn't.
Charles Chauncy, minister of the prestigious First Church of Boston, raised more troubling issues.
New Lights wanted to train young men to carry on the good works of Edwards, Whitefield, and Tennent. The New Light Presbyterians established the colleges of Princeton University (1746), Dartmouth (1769), Brown (1764), and Rutgers (1766).
Evangelical preaching allowed for an interpenetration of African and Christian religious beliefs for Africans.
This religion brought scattered colonists into contact with one another for the first time. The Great Awakening was a "national" event long before a nation actually existed. Evangelical Religion: Americans wanted to replicate British political institution. England never has had a formal written constitution, but it did develop a legal checks and balances that kept the monarch from becoming a tyrant.
Americans expected colonial assemblies to preserve the people's interests against those of the monarch and aristocracy.
Royal governors were appointed by the crown of mainland colonies and possessed enormous powers.
The councils ability to exercise independent authority declined.
Adult white males who owned little land could vote.
The colonies were viewed as "middle-class democracies" which were societies run by moderately prosperous yeomen farmers who exercised independent judgement.
Colonial governments were content to let members of the rural and urban gentry represent them in assemblies.
American voters always had the power to expel legislative rascals that kept autocratic gentlemen from straying too far from the will of the people. Colonies Government: The founders of England's mainland colonies had engaged in intense local conflicts with the Indians in New England. The colonists were involved in political and commercial rivalries between Britain and France. The external threat to security forced people to construct unknown measures of military and political cooperation.
English colonists came to believe that the French planned to encircle them. The French suspected the English intended to seize all of North America. One New Yorker said that "it wasn't possible for the English and the French to both inhabit the continent.. One nation must at last give away to another." Imperial Wars-
The French Threat: King William's War- 1689-1697 New England troops assault Quebec under Sir William Phips (1690) The Treaty of Ryswick (1697) Major Wars, 1689-1763: King George's War: Known as the French and Indian War in America.
William Pitt was determined to expel the French from the continent no matter what the cost. With 2 officers, Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe, the English cut the Canadians' main supply line with France. The French forts in the Ohio Valley began to fall. In 1759, the French surrendered key forts at Ticonderoga. The Peace of Paris of 1763 was signed and fulfilled that Britain took possession of an empire that stretched around the globe and the French received only Guadeloupe and Martinique, and the Caribbean sugar islands.
It was "a new heaven and a new earth" now. Seven Years' War: Colonial Americans took their political and cultural cues from Great Britain.
They fought in it's wars, purchased its consumer goods, flocked to hear its evangelical preachers, and read its publications.
The empire gave the colonists a compelling source of identity.
Americans hailed Britannia and they assumed that Britain's rulers saw them as "Brothers," equal partners in the business of empire. For the British, "American" was a way of saying "not quite British." Rule Britannia? Timeline: Elected members of the colonial assemblies believed that they had an obligation to preserve colonial liberties. These bodies aggressively seized privileges, determined procedures, and controlled money bills, this was known as "the rise of assemblies."
This political system was designed to generate hostility.
The secret to political success in America was connection to people who held high office in Britain.
They really believed in balanced constitution.
The Board of Trade and Parliament studied court decisions and legislative actions from all 13 mainland colonies.
Legal practices became standardized.
Americans from different regions discovered that they shared a commitment to preserving the English common law.
Colonial legislators laid the foundation for a larger cultural identity. Colonial Assemblies: Queen Anne's War- 1702-1713
Attack on Deerfield (1704)
The Treaty of Uterecht (1713) King George's War- 1743-1748
New England forces capture Louisbourg under William Pepperell (1745)
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) French and Indian War- 1756-1763
British and Continental forces capture Quebec under Major General James Wolfe (1759)
Peace of Paris (1763) 1743-1748
Known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession.
The colonists scored a magnificent victory over the French by capturing Louisbourg under William Pepperell in 1745.
This defeat demonstrated that the British colonists could fight and mount effective joint operations.
The Albany Plan envisioned the formation of a Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the colonies, to oversee matters of common defense, western expansion, and Indian affairs. To take effect, the plan required the support of the separate colonial assemblies and a Parliament. It didn't receive any.
The British destroyed Fort Duquesne. The French defeated the English for control of the Ohio Valley. 1680 El Pope leads Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish in New Mexico
1706 Birth of Benjamin Franklin
1734-1736 First expression of the Great Awakening at Northampton, Massachusetts
1740 George Whitefield electrifies listeners at Boston
1745 Colonial troops capture Louisbourg
1748 American Lutheran ministers ordained in Philadelphia
1754 Albany Congress meets
1755 French and Indians defeat Braddock in western Pennsylvania
1756 Seven Years' War is formally declared
1759 British conquer Quebec
1763 Peace of Paris ends French and Indian War
1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain Chapter 4
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