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Transcript of Personality Theories
THEORIES In this chapter we will try to get a handle on personality
main part of personality psychology addresses the broader issue of "what is it to be a person." No one theory is completely right. They all have strengths and weaknesses.
Psychologists now use the "eclectic" approach, meaning they choose the best from the theories.
Very few people are one theory only professionals Personality is....tough to pin down! Psychologists view personality as a construct - we know that it exists but it cannot be seen or touched.
There are several theories we will look at that try to examine how personality develops and what can go wrong. 1. Part of a theory may turn out to be correct.
Therefore, eventually we may be able to explain how we got the way we are by combining the most workable parts of a number of theories
2. Theories give us a framework in which to study people;
Then we can either accept or reject the claims of the theory based on what studies show to be the case.
For example, at one point it was said that those who abuse and beat their children had parents who beat them when they were children. This may or may not be the case.
The hypothesis was useful because it gave us something to study, to either accept or reject. While abusive parents may themselves have been abused, this is not the only or even major cause so we have to look elsewhere to explain it WHY HAVE THEORIES? some people are cheats and liars one day, super-religious on others
most of us respond roughly the same way in many situations - patterns are consistent from one day to the next
the odds that a person who is afraid of canoe trips, hiking, swimming and heights will also be afraid of a roller coaster
on the other hand, those who take chances, drive like maniacs and bet on anything may ride a roller coaster that has all the support bolts missing
Once we assume that some aspects of personality are fairly stable, we can look at theories that try to explain their origin Personality is a person's broad, long-lasting patterns of behavior. PSYCHOANALYSIS: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
SOCIAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES:
Karen Horney (HORN-eye), Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson
BEHAVIORISM: B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura
HUMANISTIC: Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow POPULAR PERSONALITY THEORIES In your assigned small groups,
research, discover, and present on:
Biography of the psychologist
How did he/she come to develop this theory?
Main BELIEFS or CONCEPTS of the theory: What is personality? What shapes personality according to this theory?
Counseling - how or what issues might this theory be good for?
(experiments, trivia or facts, YouTube videos) Personality Theory Research Freud's division of psyche:
In the 1890's Freud proposed a theory that distinguished between three different levels of consciousness Psychoanalysis
based his personality theory on the effects of the unconscious conflicts within the individual
Experiences in childhood influence us - problems later in life can be traced back to the first 5 or 6 years of life. Conscious thoughts are mental products currently in awareness
Preconscious thoughts are memories not currently in awareness, but easily retrieved
Unconscious thoughts are things a person cannot voluntarily bring to awareness. This was Freud's first theory about how the personality was put together. In his 1929 theory, Freud distinguished between
the id (primative, animal-like part of the mind)
the ego (the "agent of adaptation" in the psyche - mostly conscious)
the super-ego (the source of self-evaluation, guilt and pride - an internalization of parental values) Psyche - id, ego, superego
Psyche refers to the mind as a whole
Freud believed much of the psyche was unconscious; compare it to an iceberg
(9/10 underwater) The ID
the first developing part of the psyche - the it
Freud got the idea of a psychological id from a psychologist named Georg Groddeck who lived in the Vienna at the same time as Freud
Groddeck - the id was a dark, unknown part of the mind that controls us but remains outside our awareness
He wrote THE BOOK OF IT in which he argued that we are "lived " by this unseen presence. "It is in control" Freud described the id as "chaos" - a cauldron full of seething excitation dominated by impulses of sex and aggression
Freud proposed that the id was the source of the libido, a source of energy for the entire psyche
This energy was expressed in drives or urges like sex and aggression He described the mental activity generated by the id as primary process thinking
(first) primitive dream like thinking - the first type of thinking we experience as babies
it is simple, irrational, and gut-level - aimed at seeking pleasure or avoiding pain
As adults, we experience it most often in dreams or in moments of mental disturbance The pleasure principle: I want what I want when I want it
Immediate gratification - regardless of consequences
primary process thinking was said to be dominated by the pleasure principle
Freud believed babies were "all id" when born -when hungry or lonely they cry and demand immediate relief
3-4 year olds even have a hard time waiting for things they want - immediate gratification The unconscious - according to Freud
infantile -not evil but childlike
innocently good or bad depending on the circumstances (reacts with immediacy to events as they happen)
Unconsciously, we are all like little children - immediate gratification and low tolerance for frustration
Developing more mature parts of the mind helps us avoid expressing id impulses and acting like babies The Ego ("I")
It is roughly equivalent to our sense of identity - who we think we are
The part of the mind/body system that Freud called the ego is the part that executes plans and coordinates activity Freud describes the ego as drawing power from the id while controlling it
The id provides raw energy and the ego (if skillful and well controlled) can harness this energy to do useful and positive things The ego is not entirely conscious
ex: repression of unpleasant memories is an activity that Freud attributed to the ego and it was considered an unconscious sort of defense
defense mechanisms were said to be unconscious functions of the ego carried out to defend the psyche against painful thoughts and emotions Secondary process thinking
ego develops in early childhood
small children discover that id impulses cannot be immediately gratified
Pleasure principle is not realistic - sometimes you have to wait
ego develops as a result of this clash, forms conscious, rational thinking
"secondary process thinking" - later in development and modifies the primary Secondary process thinking is dominated by reality principle
The ability of the ego to make plans and take reality into account - even if it means postponing pleasure or enduring pain
Most students realize thy must complete school before they start a career so they endure years of schooling before achieving their goals
an example of the ego's ability to execute plans and defer gratification The super-ego
a supervisor of the psyche monitoring activity and making value judgements which lead us to feel good or bad about our behaviour
we learn morals and values from the people who care for us in childhood
we internalize these values and end up with a super-ego (both pride and guilt) super-ego is partly unconscious
we can be aware but can also be surprised by things like guilt Freud's Sexual Theory
he explained almost all unusual psychological phenomena with references to sex
believed that as children matured, the libido moved around to different areas of the body - erogenous zones
if a child received too much or too little gratification at any stage it could cause serious mental disturbances Repression
Freud believed that the id was a source of childish or uncivilized thoughts and feelings, unacceptable to the ego
Painful memories could make the conscious part of the mind recoil and turn away- pushing it to the unconscious
the thought does not go away and energy from the libido is consumed by keeping it repressed Defense Mechanisms
Denial - refusing to admit something happened
loss of a loved one, alcoholism
Rationalization - when you unconsciously give yourself a false explanation for your own behaviour
you do not know you are lying to yourself
Intellectualization - cool, scientific attitude toward something upsetting
students working in a morgue
Projection - when you avoid an unpleasant evaluation of yourself but see your thoughts or actions in other people
How many jerks are in a room? Displacement - libidinal energy is supposedly redirected from a desired but unavailable goal
coach / basketball
Reaction formation - you defend against unacceptable thoughts or impulses by converting them to their opposite on the surface
fight with father - mad for abandoning mom
wrote a statement saying how much he loved his dad even though he was struggling with the exact opposite emotion
Sublimation - libidinal energy is channeled into socially acceptable behaviours
"the healthy one" Undoing - undo damage and reduce guilt over something in the past
break-ups (unconscious purpose to convince yourself you aren't a bad person)
Isolation - take a conflict or problem and shut it off in a corner of your mind - out of day to day thought
they may not react when you expect a reaction
Conversion Reaction - convert psychological problems into physical ailments
witness a horrible incident and goes blind even though their eyes are fine
Identification - avoiding painful thoughts and emotions by identifying with symbolic sources of strength
people who have weak or troubled lives identify with super-hero characters
Regression - a person under stress reverts to behaviour characteristics of a younger age
fetal position 1. Oral Stage
occurs in babyhood
babies are mouth oriented (most of their pleasure and all sustenance is through their mouth)
some babies nurse for more than a year
a point of intimate contact with the mother - first erogenous zone
Fixation is when a baby gets too much or too little oral stimulation - permanently affected
Adult - may act like a baby, dependent, gullible
become obese, smoke, or chew gum a lot
Trying to recapture a lost paradise or make up for deficiencies (oral personality) 2. Anal Stage (around 2)
Centered around the anus and children become fascinated with their own waste products
playing with feces or acting excited about bathroom references
first thing a child willfully controls in an adult world
forced toilet training - child may rebel or go at inappropriate times
if fixated, child who "holds back" might become anal-retentive (neat, uptight).....the inappropriate child may become anal-expulsive or chronically messy 3. Phallic Stage (3-7)
kids discover their genitals
male bias - Freud labeled it the phallic stage even though it was applied to both sexes
naturally uninhibited about their bodies until it is learned from someone
Oedipal (boys) and Electra (girls) conflicts arise - known as the "family drama"
vague erotic feelings toward opposite sex parent
(boys) father is seen as competitor Family Drama
boy decides he loves father and wants to be like him
(reaction formation and identification)
Freud thought this was where a young boy's sexual identification came from Family Drama - female
girl develops love for father
noticing she has no penis - develops penis envy
notice her mother had suffered same fate (castration) so detests mother
resolved by reaction formation and identification
so she loves and identifies with mommy 4. Latent Stage (8-9)
until puberty kids focus on growing up and playing with same-sex kids
sexual urges go underground and seem to disappear 5. Genital Stage (Adolescence)
growing concern for the psychological and erotic satisfaction of one's partner rather than oneself as in earlier stages Evaluating Freud:
Freud resisted attempts to test their theories with experiments or other scientific research
Fischer and Greenburg (1985) carried out an ambitious attempt to survey all the scientific research that tested any of Freud's ideas (dreams are full of sex symbols, children go through Oedipal or Electra complexes)
Review ran over 500 pages and concluded:
not a shred of evidence for ideas about sexual symbolism in dreams
no support for Freud's idea that an anal character results from difficulties in toilet training
Little to no evidence of "Family Drama" or penis envy Evaluation Con't
Many therapists accept the idea of repressed memories that can be brought to consciousness
defense mechanisms - evidence that people do use such techniques
Freud is one of the most influential figures in the history of psychology
Other personality theories were formed as a direct reaction to Freud Jung's theory:
it assumes the most important factors influencing our personality are deep in the unconscious
Jung did not use Freud's concepts of id and super-ego Carl JUNG
-lived from 1875-1961
Friend and follower of Freud,
Jung began to doubt the Freudian theory's emphasis on animal functions, and eventually went off on his own.
What he really believed: the unconscious is a well of mystical and religious beliefs that controls one's behaviour
He studied very old paintings, statues, relics and books about myths and religions The mind as a whole was called the PSYCHE by both men
The psyche is the whole psychic universe of the individual, including both conscious and unconscious processes
Jung was fascinated with unconscious processes in the psyche. IF the sexual theory was Freud's special interest, unconscious mental contents were Jung's special interest
Jung was interested in any sort of myth, art, dream, legend, or religious belief because he regarded these as conscious expressions of deep, largely unconscious psychological forces. The personal unconscious was the accumulation of experiences from a person's lifetime that could not be consciously recalled
The collective unconscious was a sort of universal inheritance of human beings, a "species memory" passed on to each of us, not unlike the motor programs and instincts of other animals. Jung believed the personal unconscious was dominated by complexes
Complexes, in Jung's system, are emotion-laden themes from a person's life.
For example, if you had a leg amputated when you were a child, this would influence your life in profound ways, even if you were wonderfully successful in overcoming the disability
You might have many thoughts, emotions, memories, feelings of inferiority, triumphs, bitterness , determination...centering on that one aspect of your life. If these thoughts troubled you, Jung would say you had a complex about the leg. Complexes were due to a person's life experiences, so they were individual and unique, part of the personal unconscious according to Jung
A complex might manifest itself by turning up in dreams or fantasies, or by provoking an unusual reaction to events in the outside world that relate to the complex Jung was struck by the similarity between images from dreams, reported to him by patients, and images in the journals of medieval alchemists- magicians who demonstrated impressive chemical reactions, sometimes sold potions or told the future (and according to legend) were always seeking a way to turn lead into gold
Some alchemists also kept dream diaries, illustrating their journals with flamboyant, mysterious drawings of supernatural creatures and mystical symbols Jung saw the whole enterprise of alchemy as symbolic, a spiritual exercise. Alchemy was a symbol of the potential for human transformation from base, lower existence (lead) to higher spiritual awareness (gold)
Jung could see the similarities in the symbolism occurring in the journals of alchemists, the dreams of schizophrenics, and the myths of ancient cultures Groups:
Karen Horney - Caroline & Sophie
Alfred Adler - Ben & Shannon
Erik Erikson - Charlie & Ali
BF Skinner - Erica & Katie
Albert Bandura - Duncan & Kasey
Carl Rogers - Issy & Jasper
Abraham Maslow - Arthur & Lyla (Andy) Karen Horney (pronounced Hore-Nigh) Alfred Adler Erik Erikson B.F. Skinner Albert Bandura Carl Roger Abraham Maslow To Bandura, human beings are more than environmental creatures; they are able to think and reason beyond any other animal's capacity. To Bandura, the theory of personality had to take in more than the basic human structure; it also had to take in the cultural background of the individual. Main Concepts:
Behavior is learned from the environment through
Model -People children see as influential
Attention - Is then given to these individuals
Imitation - Child starts acting in same way as model
Reinforcement - Child receives some form of reinforcement based on actions sophie+caroline How He Thought of It This theory provides children to learn actions (both positive and negative) based on the individuals around them. Albert was born in Alberta. There were learning limitations, which forced him to be independent in what he studied, making him passionate about psychology. His parents encouraged him to leave his small hamlet. He later became interested in psychology after being shown a culture of partying, drinking, and gambling, contrasting his small country life and showing the possible differences between individuals. Biography Main Concepts of Theory How He Came Up With It Bibliography Biography Born April 1, 1908 in New York
Attended City College NY and Cornell
Married Bertha Goodman- first cousin
Moved to Uni. Wisconsin-
Began studying pysch with Harlow
Taught at Brooklyn College
Chair of psych dept. at Brandeis
Wrote- 'The Organism' Studied monkeys early in career with Harlow and realized-
Some things take precedence over others (hunger and thirst over sex)
Worked with/observed monkeys and their needs/behavior "Abraham Maslow." My Webspace files. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html>. Biography Born March 20th 1904, died August 18th
1990, grew up in Pennsylvania
Went to Hamilton College and studied
Discovered ideas of Watson and
These inspired him to be a
Went to Indiana
Became Psychology Department Chair at IU
Went to Harvard
Became one of the leaders of behaviorism
Invented the ‘Skinner Box’ Inspiration:
How did he develop his theory? Main BELIEFS or CONCEPTS of the theory:
What is personality? What shapes personality according to this theory? Learning and conditioning (operant conditioning)
Believed that the environment affect/determines behavior
Response tendencies: People will have consistent behavioral patterns
Over time people will learn to behave a certain way
Positive consequences increase
Negative consequences decrease Cumulative Recorder
rates of responding --> sloped line
“behavior did not depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and Pavlov maintained. Instead, Skinner found that behaviors were dependent upon what happens after the response. Skinner called this operant behavior.” http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm Counseling and Therapy “Using the principles of operant conditioning (reward and punishment), psychologists can set up token economies with their client. Tokens (objects with no worth) are rewarded for good behavior and can be exchanged for something in the future. This is often a technique used with children.” http://www.psychologycampus.com/behavioral-psychology/operant-conditioning.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybIr6NCfA2U Bibliography http://www.davidsonfilms.com/images/B.F.%20Skinner.jpg
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-NBJfZM_RY Theory of neurotic needs Biography Applied Born in Germany in 1885
Dealt with depression growing up
'If I couldn't be pretty, I decided I would be smart.'
found herself unattractive so she turned to school
“school is the only true thing after all”
Left her husband and moved to the US to continue her study of psychology Life itself still remains a very effective therapist.
--Karen Horney The basic premise behind this hierarchy is that we are born with certain needs. Believed in a Hierarchy of needs. Their are five level of needs without meeting the initial needs of each level you cannot progress. "Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in Personality Synopsis at ALLPSYCHOnline." Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in Personality Synopsis at ALLPSYCHOnline. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. Images: http://kaideimel.girlshopes.com/changeofpersonalityandmaslowstheory/ Counseling Maslow's heirachy of needs provides a helpful way to understand human motivation in many settings. His concept has helped His concept has helped make workplaces more responsive to the needs of workers. Attended medical school
Went to the university of Freiburg (one of the first to admit women)
Taught at the institute for psychoanalysis in Berlin from 1920-1932
Developed her own theories on neurosis, which she based off of her experience as a psychotherapist Theory of Neurosis -Thought neurosis much more parallel with normal life
-neurosis in grown ups had to do with child neglect
-10 particular patterns in 3 categories Needs that move you towards others. Needs that move you away from others. Needs that move you against others. wrote book, Self Analysis, talking about her theory 1. The Neurotic Need for Affection and Approval
2. The Neurotic Need for a Partner Who Will Take Over One’s Life
3. The Neurotic Need to Restrict One’s Life Within Narrow Borders
4. The Neurotic Need for Power
5. The Neurotic Need to Exploit Others
6. The Neurotic Need for Prestige
7. The Neurotic Need for Personal Admiration
8. The Neurotic Need for Personal Achievement
9. The Neurotic Need for Self-Sufficiency and Independence
10. The Neurotic Need for Perfection
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/neuroticneeds.htm A well adjusted individual will have all 10 of these in small doses, someone who is 'neurotic' will begin to obsess over 1 or more, letting it take over their life. *compliance* *withdrawal* *aggression* Ex. Neurotic Narcissistic personality is developed when:
We want to be perfect
Horney said that when we are young and start to develop our identity, if realize that we’re not perfect we start to hate ourselves
If not resolved, this becomes a neurotic need, you are obsessed with yourself, trying to improve who you are. Develop desire or unattainable perfection Therefore--> hard to relate well to others, work hard in order to achieve perfection, self focused (even when interacting/in relationships with others) Main ideas of Theory personality develops in stages
impacted by social experiences, vs. Freud whose theory had more to do with psycho sexual stages.
Ego identity- conscious sense of self we develop through social interactions
Our ego identity changes frequently (cont.) Ego quality/strength- sense of competence motivates behaviors/actions, therefore we refer to sense of mastery of a stage as ego quality. opposite end of spectrum- sense of inadequacy. conflict- belief in turning point which is crucial in development. potential for growth/failure both high here. Application of Theory Positives-
many times people develop similar to his stages.
ppl or use his theories as explanations for why people act a certain way.
A counselor may notice in a young adult that somebody is depressed, lonely, or isolated because they never formed close, committed relationships with others (Intimacy vs. Isolation Stage 6). (cont.) Negatives- each stage not set in stone.
example- somebody who is unsure of their beliefs and desires during Identity vs. Confusion Stage (5) will not ALWAYS be confused about themselves later on in the future. Bibliography http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
http://www.support4change.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=47&Itemid=108 Bio & theory development - -born on Feb 7th, 1870 in Vienna. He suffered from rickets at a young age and did not walk until four years old
--1895, Adler received his medical degree from University of Vienna and met his wife Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein (an intellectual and social activist in Russia)
--Alfred turned to psychiatry and joined Freud's discussion groups in 1907. -Adler examined personality around the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. They worked on some theories together until Adler rejected Freud's emphasis on sex
--His best-known work is The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology (1923). Adler had a tendency to change his theory on personality throughout his life but he ultimately believed that people are focused on maintaining control over their lives. Main BELIEFS or CONCEPTS of the theory - Adler shifted the grounds of psychological determinance from sex and libido, the Freudian standpoint, to environmental factors.
- He gave special prominence to societal factors. According to him a person has to combat or confront three forces: societal, love-related, and vocational forces.
According to Adler, an individual derives his personality traits from these essentially external factors. The character of the individual is formed by his responses to their influence in the following ways:
Over-compensation Rogers was born on January 8, 1902, in the suburban Oak Park, Illinois
Rogers was intelligent and could read well before kindergarten
He changed careers frequently until starting teachers college at Columbia and getting his phd
1940 Rogers became professor of clinical psychology at Ohio State University
In 1947 he was elected President of the American Psychological Association
In 1956, Rogers became the first President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists
During this time he wrote books on psychology
He did everything from run clinics to teach and lecture at universities.
He died in 1987 due to pancreatic failure. Biography He rejected deterministic nature of psychoanalysis + behaviorism but believed peoples actions are based on the way people perceive their situations.
He was convinced that people are inherently good + creative
Self-actualize: human’s basic tendency. Means to fulfill one’s potential + achieve the highest level of “human beingness” we can. Reaching full potential.
Mainly determined through childhood experiences.
Self-worth developed in early childhood + formed through interactions between parents and children
Child has 2 basic needs: positive regard from others + self worth
Thought people needed to be regarded positively by others i.e. positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard is between parents and significant others vs.
Conditional positive regard, which can change and be altered
Rogers felt that the potential of the individual human is unique, and we are meant to develop in different ways according to our personality.
In order to achieve self-actualization, a person must be in a state of congruence
Congruence: when a person’s ideal self is congruent to their actual behavior making them a fully functioning person.
Incongruence: a discrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the self-picture of the individual insofar as it represents that experience.
We use defense mechanisms because we prefer to see ourselves in a way that is consistent with out self-image.
This theory was created around the idea of a new type of therapy
Non-directive therapy, client-centred, person centred or learner centred
“A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning”
“A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self”
“Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism”
“The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat”
“The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated” Counseling He was American, born in Oak Park, Illinois
Lived from 1902-1987
Founder of 'client-centred' or 'non-directive' therapy
He initially studied theology + acted as the pastor in a small church in Vermont
Had a humanistic approach to psychology
Towards the end of his life Carl Rogers was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize his work with national intergroup conflict in South Africa and Northern Ireland
Rogers took part in the televised Gloria therapy sessions along with Fritz Perls and Albert Ellis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dm1L0Jo1xHw Trivia LIFE: BORN 15TH JUNE 1902
GERMAN, BUT JEWISH DUE TO A MISHAP AT BIRTH
MET ANNA FREUD, WHO TAGHT HIM PSYCOANALYSIS AND INSPIRED HIM
DIFFERENT, BECAUSE HE BELIEVED THAT THE PROCESS NEVER STOPS
INSPIRED BY HIS WIFE