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Enlightenment Ideas Spread

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Hannah Goss

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of Enlightenment Ideas Spread

Salons Fredrick the Great Enlightenment Ideas Spread Salons were informal social gatherings where writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas. This was a way for middle-class citizens to meet with nobility on equal ground and discuss and spread Enlightenment ideas. As the king of Prussia for more than 40 years, Fredrick had strict control, though he recognized his duty to work for the common good. Fredrick acknowledged religious differences and said, "In my kingdom, everyone can go to heaven in his own fashion." Fredrick's reforms were made essentially made to make the Prussian government more efficient. Setting the scene Paris was the hub of the Enlightenment. Many intelligent people went there to argue new ideas. From France,many new ideas spread through Europe. People began to see traditional beliefs and customs in a new light and found them to be flawed. The Challenge of New Ideas Educated people all through out Europe rushed to read Diderot's Encyclopedia and cheap pamphlets that printers made on a broad range of issues. During the Middle Ages Europeans had accepted, with out question, divine-right rule, strict class system, and the belief that heaven was the reward for earthly suffering. In the Age of Reason, such things seemed unscientific and irrational, instead these people wanted a society based on reason. Censorship Government and church felt like they needed to protect the old order, which had been set up by God. To protect the old order books were burned and writers were thrown in jail. Writers like Montesquieu and Voltaire hid their ideas in fictional books. In the novel Candide by Voltaire the main character travels around searching for "the best of all possible worlds". Catherine the Great Catherine became empress in 1762 and toyed with the idea of Enlightenment. Early in her reign she made little reforms in law and government. Catherine criticized the institution of serfdom. In the end, her contribution to Russia was not reform but an expanded empire. Joseph II Joseph II was an enlightened despot, the son of Maria Theresa, and emperor of Austria. He was an eager student of the Enlightenment, and often traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their problems. For this reason Joseph won the nickname "peasant emperor". Joseph's mother, Maria Theresa, had begun to modernize Austria's government, and after her death, Joseph continued. He granted tolerance to Protestants and Jews in his Catholic empire and even abolished serfdom. Though, like many of his other reforms, they were canceled after his death. Courtly Art During the time of Louis XIV, baroque art was the style. Baroque paintings are very large, full of color, and complex. By the mid 1700's rococo art was introduced by architects and designers. Unlike baroque, rococo art was very light and delicate in its details. Trends in Music During the Enlightenment many famous classical composers emerged. Johann Sebastian Bach, a German born Lutheran, wrote complex and beautiful religious arrangements for organ and choirs. Another German composer was George Frederick Handel. Handel composed music for King George I, as well as many operas. His most famous work can be heard during Christmas and Easter concerts, it is called Messiah. In 1762, at the age of six, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, entered the music scene as a piano prodigy. Throughout the next thirty years, Mozart's music helped shape the new style of compositions. The Novel During the 1700's literature had captured a whole new audience and adapted a new form. Middle-class readers, liked stories about their own times. One result of this were novels, or long works of fiction. A famous novel that came out of this time is Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. Lives of the Majority The Enlightenment did not affect most Europeans, since at the time, a majority were peasants. The culture of the peasants changed very slowly. Finally in the 1800's, due to war, political upheaval, and changing economic conditions, peasant life in Europe began to transform
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