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Transcript of 6.07 BIOTECHNOLOGY.
1: Isolation of DNA.
DNA must be recovered from the cells or tissues of the body. Only a small amount of tissue - like blood, hair, or skin - is needed. For example, the amount of DNA found at the root of one hair is usually sufficient.
2: Cutting, sizing, and sorting.
Special enzymes called restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific places. For example, an enzyme called EcoR1, found in bacteria, will cut DNA only when the sequence GAATTC occurs. The DNA pieces are sorted according to size by a sieving technique called electrophoresis. The DNA pieces are passed through a gel made from seaweed agarose (a jelly-like product made from seaweed). This technique is the biotechnology equivalent of screening sand through progressively finer mesh screens to determine particle sizes.
3: Transfer of DNA to nylon.
The distribution of DNA pieces is transferred to a nylon sheet by placing the sheet on the gel and soaking them overnight.
Adding radioactive or colored probes to the nylon sheet produces a pattern called the DNA fingerprint. Each probe typically sticks in only one or two specific places on the nylon sheet.
6: DNA fingerprint.
The final DNA fingerprint is built by using several probes (5-10 or more) simultaneously. It resembles the bar codes used by grocery store scanners. Pros-
•DNA fingerprinting is used in trials to prove that a suspect is either innocent or guilty.
•DNA fingerprinting can also be used to identify the paternity of a child.
•DNA fingerprinting is very specific and effective
•Over time DNA can be compromised or degrade.
•DNA can place someone at a crime scene that had nothing to do with the crime, making them a suspect and having a chance to be wrongly accused.
•Its easy for criminals to avoid
How it works: