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Macromolecules

Macromolecules--The Inside Scoop
by

Lara Tukarski

on 31 October 2015

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Transcript of Macromolecules

1: Carbohydrates
STRUCTURAL Polysaccharides:
Consist of CHO backbone
Monosaccharide: individual monomers (glucose, fructose, galactose)
(Monosaccharide=Simple Carb)
Disaccharides: 2 monomers joined (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
(Disaccharide=Simple Carb)
Cellulose (fiber) cell wall in plants
Chitin hard outer covering on insects
Polysaccharide: chain of 3+ monosaccharides
(Polysaccharide=Complex Carb)

glycogen (in animals)
glucose
glucose
flat/linear model
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
C - Carbon - Black
H - Hydrogen - White
O - Oxygen - Red
Mono - single
Saccharide - sugar
+
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
(Di - two)
+
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
(Poly - many)
+
Monosaccharide
+
Monosaccharide
ENERGY STORAGE Polysaccharides:
starch (in plants)
Summary:
CHO in a 1:2:1 ratio (C6H12O6)
monomers are monosaccharides
glycosidic bonds
monosaccharides join to form disaccharides, polysaccharides
used for energy storage and cell structure
2: Lipids
Consist of CHO backbone
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
(from plants)
Phospholipids
(Cell membranes)
Waxes
waterproofing
Steroids
Functions
of lipids

Cell signaling--involved with immune protection and cell communication
Summary:
CHO
hydrophobic
no true monomers
4 main types
Used for storage, structure, protection, and signaling
3: Nucleic Acids
1st nucleic acid: DNA (stores
genetic
info)

DNA

can self-replicate

and

pass information on to daughter cells
Made up of many copies of nucleotides made from 5 nitrogenous bases:
DNA: A, T, C, G
RNA: A, U, C, G
"NUCLEOTIDE" = 1 5-carbon sugar (pentose), 1 phosphate group, 1 nitrogenous base
Consist of
CHONP backbone
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
N - Nitrogen
P - Phosphorus
2nd nucleic acid: RNA (transmits genetic info)
3 types of RNA:
tRNA (transfer)
mRNA (messenger)
rRNA (ribosomal)
4. Proteins
Consist mostly of CHONS
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
N - Nitrogen
S - Sulfur
Hemoglobin
Proteins are made of chains of amino acids--
"polypeptides"
Major Types of Lipids
Most are composed of fatty acid side chains--long chains of C and H (hydrocarbons)
Saturated Fatty Acids
(from animals)
Made of amino acid chains
C-terminus
N-terminus
steroid
hormone (signal molecule)
ring structure
Summary:
CHONP
monomers are nucleotides
phosphodiester bonds
RNA and DNA
A, T, C, G, U
transfers genetic information
Summary:
CHONS
monomers are amino acids (20 types)
peptide bonds
found in all cells
vital to all life processes
important in chemical reactions, cell-signaling, immune response, movement
1
2
3
4
5
6
Chemical Rxns (Enzymes)
Cell signalling (Receptors)
Protection (Antibodies)
Movement (Motor Proteins)
Protein function
Energy storage (fat)
DNA sugar--deoxyribose (-H on C2)
RNA sugar--ribose (-OH C2)
DNA packaging in chromosomes
kink
Insulation of organisms (fat)
Cell membrane component
Non-polar region

Or, how to make this kind of cow.
straight chains of glucose monomers
branched chains of
glucose monomers
Some organisms need special protists to help digest certain fibers
MACROMOLECULES!
Most important functions: regulation of metabolism, immune response, and reproductive processes.
("Beta" sheet)
("Beta" sheet)
steroid receptor
cellular response!!!
"C2"
glucose
Waxes, too.
glycosidic
bond
Fats are made from fatty acids and glycero
Full transcript