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Free Energy & Thermodynamics
Transcript of Free Energy & Thermodynamics
We know that shows the relationship between the
change of a system and the
change of the surroundings
deltaS(univ)= deltaS(sys) + deltaS(surr)
Calculating entropy changes for a reaction
Standard entropy change for a reaction- the change in S for a process in which all reactants are in their standard state.
for a gas - 1 atm
for liquid or solid-the most stable form at 1 atm and temperature of interest
for solution - 1 M concenctration
Calculating Free Energy changes in Reactions
Energy & Entropy
What is the
Enthalpy? No! Not Enthalpy alone.
Spontaneous processes occur because they release energy from the system.
Most spontaneous processes proceed from higher potential energy to lower potential energy. - Exothermic, -deltaH
There are some spontaneous processes that proceed from lower potential energy to higher potential energy. - Endothermic, +deltaH
How can something absorb potential energy, yet have a net release of energy?
Heat Transfer and Entropy
universe = delta
sys. + delta
What If the entropy of the system decreases? Then the entropy of the surroundings must increase by a larger amount.
Processes like heat flow from hot to cold, water vapor condensing or water freezing are spontaneous, even though entropy decrease. How?
The entropy increase of the surroundings must come from heat released by the system; the process must be exothermic!
The first law of thermodynamics is that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
two ways energy is “lost” from a system
deltaE = q + w
deltaE = deltaH + P(deltaV)
deltaE is a state function.
Every energy transition results in a “loss” of energy. (Heat Tax)
No Perpetual Motion!
Free Energy & Thermodynamics
) is a thermodynamic function that increases as the number of energetically equivalent ways of arranging the components increases.
Units - J/K*mol
k = Boltzmann constant = 1.38 × 10^-23 J/K
is the number of energetically equivalent ways a system can exist. Unitless
C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) --> 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
1. deltaG(rxn) = deltaH(rxn) - TdeltaS(rxn)
estimate at any temperature
2. Using free energy of formation values
deltaG(rxn) = deltaG(prod) - deltaG(react)
only at 25 C ( 298K)
3. For a stepwise reaction (Hess's Law)
A fundamental goal of
is to predict spontaneity or processes.
- Processes that will occur without outside intervention.
Nonspontaneous processes require energy input to go.
determined by looking at a
that predicts direction of change.
Spontaneous processes are
process is at equilibrium.
energy after reaction < before the reaction, the reaction is thermodynamically favorable.
does not equal
fast or slow
More freedom of motion increases the randomness of the system. When systems become more random, energy is released. We call this energy,
A - 1 microstate
B - 1 microstate
C - 6 microstates
Therefore, state C has higher entropy than either state A or B.
energy more dispersed over 6 possibilities.
There are two factors that determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.
of the system.
The enthalpy change is favorable for exothermic reactions and unfavorable for endothermic reactions
deltaS = Sfinal - Sinitial (a state function)
Entropy change is favorable when the result is a more random system. deltaS is positive.
Some changes that increase the entropy are:
Reactions whose products are in a more random state
Solid more ordered than liquid; liquid more ordered than gas
Reactions that have larger numbers of product molecules than reactant molecules
Increase in temperature
Solids dissociating into ions upon dissolving
The second law of thermodynamics
- for a spontaneous process the total entropy change of the
must be positive
For reversible process deltaSuniv = 0
A chemical system proceeds in the direction that increases the entropy of the universe.
Change is temperature dependent (units J/K)
surr = deltaHsys/T
Kinetics - Speed of a reaction-How Fast (Chapter 13)
Looks at how long it takes for a reaction to reach equilibrium. The kinetics of a process is effected by:
Concentration of reactants
Use of a catalyst
Mechanism of the reaction
Equilibrium – the extent of a reaction
Looks at how far a reaction proceeds toward products before the rate of the forward process equals the rate of the reverse process. The equilibrium expression and equilibrium constant (Keq) describes mathematically the extent of reaction.
– used to predict the
of a reaction. (
Why They Occur
Involves the study of changes in the system and surroundings of:
Enthalpy - H (Chapter 6)
Entropy - S
Free energy - G (a combination of H and S).
Using q(sys) to quantify deltaS(surr)
-q(sys) --> +deltaS(surr)
entropy change of surrounding inversely related to temperature -
deltaS(surr) --> -q(sys)/T
at constant P
q(sys) = deltaH(sys)
constant P & T
deltaS(surr) = - deltaH(sys)/T
So an exothermic system will lead to an increase in entropy of the surrounding that is inversely related to temperature
deltaH(rxn) = -2044KJ
a. calculate the entropy change in the surroundings associated with this reaction at 25 degrees C.
b. Determine the sign of the entropy change for the system.
c. Determine the sign of the entropy change for the universe. Will the reaction be spontaneous?
deltaS(univ)= deltaS(sys) - deltaH(sys)/T
(-T)deltaS(univ)= (-T)deltaS(sys) + (T)deltaH(sys)/T
(-T)deltaS(univ)= deltaH(sys) - (T)deltaS(sys)
the right side of this equation is the thermodynamic function
Gibbs Free Energy(G)
G = H -TS
the change in free energy:
deltaG = deltaH - T(deltaS)
deltaG = -TdeltaS(univ)
Since deltaS(univ) is a basis for spontaneity, So deltaG must also be an indicator of spontaneity.
Gibbs free energy is the
we have been looking for.
It represents the maximum Useful work available from a reaction
Chemical systems tend toward
lower free energy
- deltaG - indicates a spontaneous process
+ deltaG indicates a nonspontaneous process
CCl4(g) --> C (s, graphite) + 2 Cl2(g) deltaH = +95.7KJ, deltaS = +142.2 J/K
Calculate deltaG at 25 C. Is it spontaneous?
C2H4(g) + H2(g) --> C2H6(g) deltaH = -137.5 KJ, deltaS = -120.5 J/K
Calculate deltaG at 25 C. Is it spontaneous?
At constant P and T
like Melting favored at high T
decreasing entropy processes
like freezing favored at low T
deltaS(rxn) = S(prod) - S(react)
Third law of thermodynamics
- The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero (0 K) is zero.
Standard molar entropy
values are measured against this
Calculate deltaS(rxn) for the following equation.
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) --> 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
The change if Free energy of a chemical reaction represents the maximum amount of energy available, or
, to do useful work (if deltaG is negative).
this is often less then the change in enthalpy
deltaG represents the
limit of how much work can be done by the reaction.
reactions the available energy is even
then deltaG because of additional energy loss (heat tax)
deltaS = -80.5 KJ
If deltaG is positive it represents the theoretical minimum amount of energy required to make the reaction occur
slower current will reduce loss
recharging will also take more energy
Free Energy for Nonstandard States
H20(l) <-> H2O(g)
At standard state:
deltaG = +8.59 kJ/mol
Standard state - P(H2O) = 1 atm
Normal state - P(H2O) << 1 atm
normal conditions not standard conditions!
deltaG @ nonstandard conditions-
deltaG = deltaG(stand) +
- reaction quotient
@ standard conditions
@equilibrium at 298K
=0.0313 and deltaG = 0
other nonstandard - plug in
lower P(H2O) = evaporation
higher P(H2O) = condense
Standard Free Energy and Equilibrium
Spontaneity [delta G(stand)] and the equilibrium constant (K) and connected.
if a forward process occurs with a large negative deltaG then the K value will be large
if a forward process occurs with a large positive deltaG then the K value will be small
@ equilibrium DeltaG =0
deltaG(rxn) = -
Temperature dependence and K
deltaG(rxn) = deltaH -TdeltaS
ln(K2/K1) = (-deltaH(rxn)/R)(1/T2 - 1/T1)
Can use to find deltaH from K at 2 temperatures or find K at a temperature if we know K at another temp and deltaH