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Copy of Evolution Concept Map

AP Biology assignment

shaoping ling

on 19 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Evolution Concept Map

Evolution Concept Map Made by Aspen Sutherland Evolution Natural Selection Darwin Differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool. An English naturalist who first proposed the idea of natural selection Origin of Species The book written by Charles Darwin about his theory of natural selection Decent with Modification Darwin’s initial phrase for the general process of evolution. Gradualism A tenet in evolutionary theory maintaining that species evolve slowly and continuously over long periods of geological time. Paleontology All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today. The scientific study of fossils. Uniformitarianism Charles Lyell’s idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history. Hardy-Weinberg Equation The principle that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium The condition describing a non-evolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium). Mutations A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity. Genetic Drift Unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population’s finite size. Founder Effect Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, with the result that the new population’s gene pool is not reflective of the original population. Punctuated Equilibrium In evolutionary theory, long periods of apparent stasis (no change) interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change. Bottleneck Effect Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population. Catastrophism The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time. Gene Flow Genetic additions to or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes. Lamarck's Idea of Evolution That if a species did it enough in life, it'll be passed down on offspring. Gradualism Evolutionary theory maintaining that species evolve slowly and continuously over long periods of geological time. Population Genetics The study of how populations change genetically over time Gene Pool The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time. Taxonomy A set of characteristics used to assess the similarities and difference. Binomial Nomenclature The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet. Taxon The named taxonomic unit at any given level Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Disruptive Selection Directional Selection Stabalizing Selection The study of the past and present distribution of species. Biogeography Endemic Species species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range Microevolution minor evolutionary change observed over a short period of time. Macroevolution Evolutionary change above the species level, including the appearance of major evolutionary developments, such as flight, that we use to define higher taxa. Adaptive Radiation The evolution of a large number of related species from an unspecialized ancestral organisms. Evolutionary Adaptation An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms’ ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments Molecular Homologies Similarity in the DNA and RNA Homology Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry. Homologous Structure Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry. Phylogeny The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species. Convergent Evolution Evolution of the structure or function of similar usually to adapt to the environment. Systematics The analytical study of the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct. Coevolution Speciation The mutual evolutionary influence between two different species interacting with each other and reciprocally influencing each other’s adaptations. The origin of new species in evolution. Analogous Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait. Vestigal Structures A structure of marginal, if any, importance to an organism. Vestigial organs are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors. Natural selection that favors individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes. Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range. Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes. Helps Prove Proposed one of the ideas Natural Selection is a key factor in evolution A branch of natural selection A branch of natural selection A branch of natural selection Condition for natural selection Proposed the idea after observations nicknamed it Wrote the book could be a hindrance to evolution The conditions for it The conditions for that The End
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