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My Science Fair Project
Transcript of My Science Fair Project
How do temperature changes affect the strength and adherence of glue?
Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that the strength of wood glue will decrease as the temperature increases, but as the temperature decreases the strength of the wood glue will increase, when experimented in a variety of ways. This will reveal how exactly the product should be used and it will also show if the product is unreliable depending on if the glue breaks apart faster from the wood when exposed to heat. Although, the samples in my experiment which are not being affected by temperature changes (my control group) can be used for wood and it is safe to believe that the joint between the wood and the glue will not break apart so easily, even if exposed to any source of heat.
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of temperature change on glue’s strength.
Background Information: Natural and synthetic glues with many different compositions are used in many products. The ease of use and the strength of glue make it a perfect and inexpensive choice for fastening different materials. With growing use of glue in different products it becomes necessary to study the safety, reliability and the strength of different glue in different temperatures. After all glues are polymers (like plastics) and polymers are often sensitive to the heat. Although, the glue which is being used for this experiment (Gorilla Glue) is a bit different compared to other glues. This glue may seem quite liquid like a bit too much when squeezed out, but when drying for about 3-5 minutes it transforms into a foam like substance. This glue is strong and weather proof, it is a multi-purpose glue and it can get the job done. As their product says, “For the toughest Jobs on planet Earth”.
Wet Glue Samples
Dry Glue Samples
• Wood Glue (Gorilla Glue)
• Long wood dowels or Popsicle Sticks
• A 5000-gram Spring Scale
• A Thermometer
• A lamp (the heat source)
• Aluminum plates (to put glue samples on while on heat)
1) (Only for wet glue samples) I got my glue called Gorilla Glue and 20 identical pieces of wood in a total of 5 samples, (4 popsicle sticks for each sample) and each were used for only one temperature ranging from 20 degrees to 100 degrees. Next I glued each sample of wood with the same amount of glue.
2) (Only for dry glue samples) I got my glue called Gorilla Glue and 20 identical pieces of wood in a total of 5 samples, (4 popsicle sticks for each sample) and each were used for only one temperature ranging from 20 degrees to 100 degrees. Next I glued each sample of wood with the same amount of glue. Next I let all the samples of glued wood dry at room temperature for at least 1-2 days.
3) For my control group I put two samples that were away from the experiment area and I let them dry off for about 2-3 days. I placed the other samples under my heat source.
4) I got a heat source such as a heat lamp. I placed my lamp somewhere safe, away from any flammable material and turned it on. I also divided the area in front my lamp to 5 different heat zones (one for each glued wood sample), and marked the area with the average temperature of that zone and I marked the wood dowels of each catogory with one specific color. (Wet Samples = Red, Dry Samples = Yellow, and Control = Peach).
5) I plugged in the lamp and I brought a timer, but since I didn’t know the exact temperature of the heat the lamp was providing, I had to find the temperature of the area. I then measured the temperature in the certain area by using a thermometer, after knowing the amount of temperature I corresponded it with the amount of time it should stay under the heat source.
6) After using a thermometer to measure the room temperature, I recorded the temperature. This was done without using two wood dowels, since it is optional to use this method. While doing this I had hung the spring scale at the joint and started to pull it down while watching at the amount of applied force. Next, I recorded the final amount of force that either broke or didn’t break the pieces apart. After that, I calculated the average strength for the wet glue samples. (These few steps were only for the wet glue samples).
7) After the dry glue samples were dried I repeated steps 4, 5, and 6.
8) Although, for my control since it is not being affected by any temperature changes, I would just go straight to measuring the strength using the scale, by only repeating step 6, by braking both of my samples, after they have finished drying for about 2-3 days.
9) After about two to three days I visually inspected all of the wood glue samples. I looked for any way of how each glue samples strength was different based on another’s, which was proved when lifted up by the spring scale, therefore showing the force and strength. Finally, I compared the final results of the wet glue samples, and the dry glue samples, and my control group as well.
10) In the end of my experiment, I recorded my results on three charts (one for each glue sample) of how each glue sample average strength was based on my experiment. In my each of my charts I recorded things such as the temperature which was done and the strength for each sample when affected by heat. In the end of each result chart, I also recorded the total average strength of all the samples in each category.
By experimenting the strength of glue when affected by different temperatures in a variety of ways, I was able to see and learn something which I have never experienced before. While doing my experiment I had noticed a weird trend with the wet glue samples and the dry glue samples, which at first had not made sense to me at all. Since, the first time had experimented with my first samples which was the wet glue samples, I was amazed that compared to the 60 degrees sample the 40 degrees sample's strength was 12 while the 60 degrees samples had a force of only 6. I might have been dazzled then but that was just the start since suddenly the force skyrocketed to an astounding 18 kg for the 80 degrees sample in the wet sample category. Then it ended with decreasing 7 kg which was the 100 degrees sample. It may be a bit deceiving, but the dry samples were less strong, but still had somewhat the same trend as the wet samples. As the first sample in this category (the 20 degrees) sample, it started out as the strength of 7 kg. Then the 40 degrees sample had increased by 0.5, the 60 degrees sample just like the wet samples had decreased to a strength of 4kg. Again, just like the 80 degrees sample in the wet category, the 80 degrees sample in the dry sample category had increased in strength, by 4 kg. However, unlike the 100 degrees sample in the wet category, the 100 degrees sample in the dry samples category actually rose to 11 kg compared to the 80 degrees sample which was 8 kg. Now by giving the control more than a day to dry, without any heat, it was actually quite strong since the strength for both samples was 10 kg.
By making observations and reading my results, I was able to finally find out the strength of each sample each category. Then, by plotting what I have seen throughout my experiment on my results charts, I was able to calculate the total average of all the samples in each category. The wet samples total average came out to be 10.6 kg, while the dry samples total average was 7.6 kg, and the control was 10 kg. As seen here, the category which had the strongest samples was the wet samples category, since it came out to have an average of 10.6 kg. The control came in second strongest since it was weaker that the wet samples by 0.6 kg. Although, the dry samples came out to be a total of 7.6 kg which was the weakest group of all of them. So, my hypothesis which was that the strength of wood glue will decrease as the temperature increases, but as the temperature decreases the strength of the wood glue will increase, was only partially correct. Since, the wet samples and the dry samples did have weird trends it is hard to make a final conclusion. However, since the dry samples were able to dry for a day and they were all exposed to heat, it became weaker. However, the wet samples since they were directly put on the heat and directly put on the scale, they had a positive impact, since they had not dried too long. Although, the control group samples had dried for a long time which was 2 days and had not been put on the heat at all, they were still not weaker compared to the dry samples. So, I have now come to the final conclusion that when dried too long and given heat as well, the glue becomes much too weak, which is why the dry glue samples were negatively affected in the first place. However, when only dried or just being affected by only heat, my glue which is gorilla glue stays much stronger. By observing, experimenting, and going through a whole series of trials and triumph, I was able to truly able to see how temperature changes affect the strength and adherence of glue.
Temperature Average Strength
20ºF 6 kg
40ºF 12 kg
60ºF 6 kg
80ºF 18 kg
100ºF 11 kg
Total Average Strength: 10.6 kg
Temperature Average Strength
20ºF 7 kg
40ºF 7.5 kg
60ºF 4 kg
80ºF 8 kg
100ºF 11.5 kg
Total Average Strength: 7.6 kg
Temperature Average Strength
Room Temperature (68ºF) 10 kg
Room Temperature (68ºF) 10 kg
Total Average Strength: 10 kg