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U.S History Timeline
Transcript of U.S History Timeline
Secretary of state: Thomas Jefferson Historical significance - Commander-in-Chief of the continental army who defeated the british in the American Revolution, who forced the surrender of Cornwallis with the help of french aid in 1781. - Shay's rebellion Daniel Shay as well as veterans revolted in which proved the articles of confederation weak. - prime mover to change the articles of confederation to the constitution - Disproved of sending aid to the french or british during the french revolution, so the U.S could grow stronger. - Whiskey Rebellion: farmers revolted due to the whiskey tax that was passed by Hamilton. George Washington shut it down by sending in the army. proved the constitution to be strong. - Has a poor military background in the French and Indian war: Friendly fire at fort Duquesne - Gave a farewell speech that warned against political parties and advocated a term limit 2. John Adams 1797-1801 Federalist era
federalist party dominated politics,
adoption of the constitution, and growing government John Adams Vice President: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of state : Timothy Pickering Historical significance Revolutionary: was the michigan delegate at the continental congress.
Appointed to draft the declaration of independence X-Y-Z affair: three french delegates bribed America to negotiate with them
Quasi war : a undeclared war with france Alien act: authorized the president to deport aliens that are dangerous to the peace and safety of the united states Sedition act: any treasonable activity including false and scandalous writing was a high misdemeanor punishable by fines and imprisonment Samuel Adams cousin Birth: 1732
Death: 1799 Birth: 1735
Death:1826 3. Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 Jeffersonian Era
The election of 1800 brought about these two parties,with Adams representing the Federalists, and Jefferson representing the Democratic Republicans. Thomas Jefferson Birth: 1743 Death: 1826 Vice President: Aron Burr Secretary of State: James Madison Historical Significance Revolutionary: represented Virginia as a delegate and was the war time governor of Virginia
Marbury vs Madison: established judicial review
Louisiana Purchase: Jefferson thought it was necessary and proper to purchase Louisiana from France
Embargo of 1807: during the Napoleonic wars american ships were being taken over by opposing countries testing american neutrality
to solve this the embargo act was formed
End of Alien and sedition acts: Jefferson repealed the alien and sedition acts because the were thought of as unconstitutional
Virginia/ Kentucky Resolution: James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to Kentucky and Virginia to repeal the alien and sedition acts.
Died on the 50th anniversary of independence a few hours before John Adams James Madison 1809-1817 James Madison Born: 1751 Died: 1836 Vice president: George Clinton
(1811-17) Historical Significance - ended embargo of 1807
the embargo was a terrible idea that hurt America so it was repealed by congress
- war of 1812
Britain had trade restrictions, imprisoned american sailors, supporting native American tribes, insulted the U.S.A
-Jackson wins battle of the battle of New Orleans
-Treaty of ghent
ended the war of 1 812 . Era of good feelings End of the Jeffersonian era The era saw the collapse of the Federalist Party and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between it and the dominant Democratic-Republican party during the First Party System. 5. James Monroe 1817-1825 James Monroe Birth: 1758 Death: 1831 Vice President: Danial Tompkins Secretary of state: John Q. Adams Historical Significance Industrial/ Market Revolution: Innovation and inventions increase productivity in America Panic 1819: post war economic boost ended, Mortagages foreclosed, and falling prices
Monroe Doctrine: Stated that if any foreign country attempts to reclaim their land in U.S it would be seen as acts of agression
Missouri Compromise: was passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30 north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. To balance the number of "slave states" and "free states," the northern region of what was then Massachusetts was admitted into the United States as a free state to become Maine. Adams-onis Treaty: Gave Florida to the U.S 6. John Q. Adams 1825-1829 John Q. Adams Born: 1767 Death: 1848 Vice President: John C. Calhoun
Secretary of State: Henry Clay Historical Significance Corrupt Bargain 1829: Henry clay Stepped down from the presidential campaign so Adams could get more votes, in return he was appointed secretary of state. Andrew Jackson felt cheated Tariff of Abomination: Designed to protect industry in northern united states. Southerners hated this. S.C. exposition, v.p Calhoun Nullifying northern Tariffs: Argued the Northern Tariffs with Andrew Jackson that it was unconstitutional 7. Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 "old hickory" Andrew Jackson Born 1767 Died : 1845 Vice president: John C. Calhoun Secretary of state: Martin Van Buren Historical Significance -Spoils system- Replaced Federal Employees with friends and loyalist - kitchen Cabinet: Jackson took advice from friend and political supporters instead of his cabinent -Worcester V. Georgia: held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional Trail of Tears: Forced Relocation
of Native Americans. Pet Banks: State banks that were elected by the u.s treasury were to have the government surplus funds 8. Martin Van Buren " Martin Van Ruin" 1837-1841 Martin Van Buren Born: 1782 Died: 1862 Vice President: Richard Johnson Secretary of state: John Forsyth Historical Significance Amistad v. U.S: Article IX of Pinckney's Treaty was ruled off topic since the Africans in question were never legal property. They were not criminals, as the U.S. Attorney's Office argued, but rather "unlawfully kidnapped, and forcibly and wrongfully carried on board a certain vessel".[ Panic of 1837: Banks and businesses failed Blocked TX annexation: America believed that annexation of Texas would cause war between them and Mexico Was blamed by the Whig party because of his laid back life style
Voted against the admission of missouri as a slave state appointed John McKinley as a supreme court justice Nominated by the free soil party 1848 9. William H. Harrison 1841-1841 William H. Harrison Born: 1773 Died: 1841 Vice President: John Tyler Secretary of State: Daniel Webster Historical Significance Fought in the battle of tippecanoe
(war of 1812) Log Cabin Campaign: first president to campaign actively for office First Whig President Longest Inauguration Speech
Died of a Fever John Tyler became President 10. John Tyler 1841-1845 John Tyler Born: 1790 Died: 1862 Vice President: None Secretary of State: Daniel Webster Historical Significance First Presidential Successor Annexed Texas
(1845) Texas had declared independence from Mexico in the Texas Revolution of 1836, although Mexico still refused to acknowledge it as a sovereign state. The people of Texas actively pursued joining the Union, but Jackson and Van Buren had been reluctant to inflame tensions over slavery by annexing another Southern state. Tyler, on the other hand, intended annexation to be the focal point of his administration. Kicked out of Whig Party First President to be Impeached: Vetoed a Tariff Bill Opened door to western expansion "His Accidency" aristocrat Independent Leader Chosen as Harrison's vice president to gain more votes James K. Polk 1845-1849 James K. Polk Born: 1795 Death: 1849 Vice President: George Dallas Secretary of state: James Buchanan Historical Significance Southern Democrat Manifest destiny: Gods Will To Go West Mexican-American War: this is what happened when we annexed Texas Treaty of Guadalupe Haildalgo: Forced mexican cession of California and new Mexico and established the border between Mexico and U.S. Gadsen Purchase: bought Arizona and New Mexico Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was laid by fur trappers and traders from about 1811 to 1840 and was only passable on foot or by horseback 11. 12. Zachary Taylor 1849-1851 Zachary Taylor born: 1784 death: 1850 Vice President: Millard Fillmore Secretary of State: John M. Clayton historical Significance Created the department of interior Created Native American Reservations National Parks recreation Wild Life Wilmot Proviso: The Wilmot Proviso, one of the major events leading to the American Civil War, would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future Died in office 13. Millard Fillmore 1851-1853 Millard Fillmore Born: 1800 Death: 1874 Vice President: None Secretary of state: Daniel Webster Historical Significance Whig very free minded compromise of 1850: was a package of five bills passed in the United States in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). bleeding Kansas: was a series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of Missouri between 1854 and 1861. Border Ruffians were pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who in 1854 to 1860 crossed the state border into Kansas Territory, to force the acceptance of slavery there. 4. 14. Franklin pierce 1853-1857 Franklin pierce Born : 1804 Death: 1869 Vice President: William R. King Secretary of state: William L. Marcy Historical Significance Kansas-Nebraska act: created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory. sought to display a traditional Democratic assertiveness. pressured the United Kingdom to relinquish its interests along part of the Central American coast. Pierce hired a full-time bodyguard Douglas and several southern Senators successfully persuaded Pierce to support Douglas' plan. The President that didn't really accomplish much 15. James Buchanan 1857-1861 James Buchanan Born:1791 Death: 1868 Vice President: John beckinridge
Secretary of state: Lewis Cass Historical Significance Dredd Scott Case: Congress had no constitutional power to exclude slavery in the territories. Buchanan considered the essence of good self-government to be founded on restraint. Panic 1857: overbuilding by competing railroads, and rampant land speculation in the west. Utah War: Mormons tryed to take over Utah but Buchanan stopped it by negotiaton Partisan deadlock: Both Northern and Southern allowed Replublicans to become the majority 16. Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 Abraham Lincoln Born: 1809 Death: 1865 Vice President: Andrew Johnson Secretary of State: William H. Seward Historical Significance Lincoln- Douglas debates: a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the Senate in Illinois, and Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. Emancipation Proclamation: sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery. Gettysburg Adress: The Gettysburg Address was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863 General Ulysses S. Grant's victories at the Battle of Shiloh and in the Vicksburg campaign impressed Lincoln and made Grant a strong candidate to head the Union Army. re-elected in 1864 John Wilkes Booth was a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland killed lincoln Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 Andrew Johnson Born: 1808 Death: 1875 Vice President: none Secretary of State: William H. Seward Historical Significance first to be overriden: T he civil rights act was overriden with 2/3rds majority Civil Rights act: a United States federal law that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War. Millitary districts: separated the southern states into military districts Tensure of Office act: restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. was Impeached with only one vote shy Reconstruction:bring the South back to normal Ulysses S. Grant 1869-1877 Ulysses S. Grant Born: 1822 Death: 1885 Vice President: Schuyler Colfax Secretary of State: Hamilton Fish Historical Signifance worked with congress to readmit the last four Confederate states Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia into the Union Naturalizatioon act of 1870: allowed persons of African descent to become citizens of the United States. 15. Amendment: prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". Panic of 1873: a world-wide depression that started when the stock market in Vienna crashed in June 1873. black Friday: a world-wide depression that started when the stock market in Vienna crashed in June 1873. died of throat cancer at the age of 63 17. 18. 19. Rutherford B. Hayes 1877- 1881 Rutherford B. Hayes Born: 1822 Death: 1893 Vice President: William Wheeler Secretary of State: William M. Evarts Historical Significance Compromise 1877: purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era. Solid South: electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates from 1877 Replublican Party splits
Stalwarts: no change Change in government
Halfbreeds: little Change in government
Mugwumps: Change in government Gilded Age: period of widespread economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain. 20. James A. Garfield 1881- 1881 James A. Garfield born: 1831 Death: 1881 Vice President: Chester A. Arthur Secretary of State: James G. Blaine Presidency Knights of labor: promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman. Garfield's wife contracted malaria. he was shot by Guiteau doctors didn't find the bullet in Garfield. Alexander Graham Bell specifically devised a metal detector to find the bullet a Navy engineer, with the help of Simon Newcomb, installed in Garfield's room what may have been the world's first air conditioner. Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 Chester A. Arthur Born: 1829 Death: 1886 Vice President: none Secretary of State: James G. Blaine Presidency tried to lower tariff rates so the Government would not be embarrassed by annual surpluses of revenue. Chinese exclusion act: Prohibited Chinese Immigration Was a Stalwart but eventually he turned into a Mugwump Died of a Kidney Disease was appointed by grant for the collector of port of new york Pendleton Civil service act: government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit.made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property 22. Grover Cleveland 1885- 1889 Grover Cleveland Born: 1837 Death: 1908 Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks Secretary of State: Thomas F. Bayard Presidency 1st Democrat since Buchanan Dawes act: stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society Hay market riot: bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square Chicago American federation of labor: was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. vetoed hundreds of private pension bills for American Civil War veterans campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism. 23. Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 Benjamin Harrison Born: 1833 Death: 1901 Vice President: Levi P. Morton Secretary of state: James G. Blaine Presidency Sherman anti-trust act: prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anticompetitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation. Attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans Battle of wounded knee: Wounded Knee is considered the last major American Indian battle in the 19th century. Had electricity installed in the White House for the first time by Edison General Electric Company, Compromise over fishing rights Overthrow against Queen Liliuokalani, 24. Grover Cleveland 1893-1897 Grover Cleveland Born: 1837 Death: 1908 Vice President: Aldai E. Stevenson Secretary of State: Walter Q. Gresham Presidency 1st president to have two consecutive, terms that are not linear Rejected the idea of annexation and encouraged the Congress to continue the American tradition of non-intervention Morgan Report: U.S. Congressional investigation into the events surrounding the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Had a tumor in his mouth admitted six states into the union Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming is on the 1000 doller bill 25. William Mckinley 1897-1901 William McKinley Born: 1843 Death: 1901 Vice president: Garret A. Hobart Secretary of State: John Sherman Presidency Cuba-Spain war: rebels in Cuba had waged an intermittent campaign for freedom from Spanish colonial rule. proposed to open negotiations with Spain on the basis of Cuban liberation and Puerto Rican annexation, with the final status of the Philippines subject to further discussion Open door policy: concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. Dingley act:introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, Jr., of Maine, raised tariffs in United States to counteract the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates. spoken out against lynching while governor, and most African Americans who could vote supported him in 1896. Was assassinated by anarchists 26. Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Theordore Roosevelt Born: 1858 Death: 1919 Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks Secretary of state: John Hay Presidency Succeeded after McKinley's death Negotiated with the united mine wirkewrs when they went on strike Roosevelt Corollary: allows the United States to "exercise international policy power" Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 banned misleading labels and preservatives that contained harmful chemicals. Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act banned food and drugs that are impure or falsely labeled from being made, sold, and shipped. Was Part of the "Bull Moose" party chose not to run for another term in 1908, and supported William Taft for the presidency, instead of Fairbanks. 27. William H. Taft 1909-1913 William H. Taft Born: 1857 Death: 1930 Vice President: James S. Sherman Secretary of state: Philander C. Knox Presidency Created the united states chamber of commerce: counterbalance to the rise of the labor movement at the time proposed income taxes for corporations and a constitutional amendment to remove the apportionment requirement for taxes on incomes from property endorsed Booker T. Washington's program for uplifting the African American race Dollar Diplomacy: further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Was appointed chief justice Admitted new mexico to the union 28.Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Woodrow Wilson Born: 1856 Death: 1924 Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall Secretary of state: William J. Bryan Presidency Clayton Antitrust Act : specified particular prohibited conduct spent 1914 through to the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe. made a declaration of neutrality in 1914. The Fourteen Points: ranged from the most generic principles like the prohibition of secret treaties to such detailed outcomes as the creation of an independent Poland with access to the sea Revenue Act:re-Imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the sixteen amendment intended the Fourteen Points as a means toward ending the war and achieving an equitable peace for all the nations 29. Warren G. Harding 1921-1923 Roaring 20's: decade of great economic growth and widespread prosperity driven by government growth policies, a boom in construction, and the rapid growth of consumer goods such as automobiles. Warren G. Harding Born: 1865 Death: 1923 Vice President: Calvin Coolidge Secretary of State: Charles E. Hughes Presidency called a joint session of Congress to address matters that he deemed of national and urgent importance Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 : established the framework for the modern federal budget. signed a series of bills regulating agriculture. Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921: defined the Federal Aid Road program to develop an immense national highway system. Sheppard-Towner act: provided federal funding for maternity and child care. "Ohio Gang" scandal: appointees used their new powers to exploit their positions for personal gain. " Teapot Dome" scandal: everyone involved was ultimately convicted in 1931 of accepting bribes and illegal no-interest personal loans in exchange for the leasing of public oil fields to business associates 30. Calvin Coolidge 1923-1929 Calvin Coolidge Born: 1872 Death: 1933 Vice President: None Secretary of State: Charles E. Hughes Presidency Immigration act: United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country World War Adjusted Compensation Act: United States federal law passed on May 19, 1924, that granted a benefit to veterans of American military service in World War I. Revenue Act of 1924:cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Act: never became law, was a highly controversial plan in the 1920s to subsidize American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products. Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: worst natural disaster to hit the Gulf Coast until Hurricane Katrina in 2005 Coolidge spoke in favor of the civil rights of African Americans and Catholics Great Depression: United States economy first went into an economic recession. Although the country spent two months with declining GDP, it was not until the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 that the effects of a declining economy were felt, and a major worldwide economic downturn ensued. 31. Herbert Hoover 1929-1933 Herbert Hoover Born: 1874 Death: 1964 Vice President: Charles Curtis Secretary of State: Frank B. Kellogg Presidency Federal Bureau of Prisons: administration of the federal prison system Bureau of Indian Affairs: agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States believed that African-Americans and other races could improve themselves with education and wanted the races assimilated into white culture Great Depression: feared that too much government intervention would undermine long-term individuality and self-reliance, which he considered essential to the nation's future. Bonus Army: Thousands of World War I veterans and their families demonstrated and camped out in Washington, DC, during June 1932, calling for immediate payment of a bonus that had been promised by the World War Adjusted Compensation Act in 1924 for payment in 1945. 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt Born: 1882 Death: 1945 Vice President: John N. Garner
Henry A. Wallace
Harry S. Truman Secretary of state: Cordell Hull Presidency First New Deal: "First 100 Days" concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, he sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily. Second New Deal: These measures included the Works Progress Administration, Social Security Act, and Wagner Act Munich Agreement:settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of Czechoslovakia's areas along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers Pearl Harbor: Empire of Japan attacks U.S, Dday: U.S as well as other contries storm the beaches of normandy Got re-elcted for a 4th term Died due to poor health 33. Harry S. Truman 1945-1953 Harry S. Truman Born: 1884 Death: 1972 Vice President: None Secretary of State: George C. Marshall Presidency Truman Doctrine: international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech Marshall Plan: American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism Berlin airlift : Soviet Union blocked access to the three Western-held sectors of Berlin. Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate Truman at Blair House. submitted a civil rights agenda to Congress that proposed creating several federal offices devoted to issues such as voting rights and fair employment practices. Army units became racially integrated 34. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 Cold War: a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact. Dwight D. Eisenhower Born: 1890 Death: 1969 Vice President: Richard Nixon Secretary of State: John F. Dulles Presidency Interstate Highway System: network of freeways that forms a part of the National Highway System of the United States. Domino theory: promoted at times by the United States government, and speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. Soviet launch of Sputnik in 1957, gaining the Cold War enemy enormous prestige around the world. Eisenhower Doctrine: a country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state U.S. one-man U-2 spy plane was reportedly shot down at high altitude over the airspace of the Soviet Union. The flight was made to gain photo intelligence before the scheduled opening of an East–West summit conference which had been scheduled in Paris, 15 days later. begun the process of desegregating the Armed Forces in 1948, actual implementation had been slow 35. John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 John F. Kennedy Born: 1917 Death: 1963 Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Secretary of State: Dean Rusk Presidency Bay of Pigs Invasion : intention was to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power Cuban Missile Crisis: U-2 spy planes took photographs of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites being built in Cuba by the Soviets. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but the Soviet Union began testing nuclear weapons that September. "New Frontier": promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas Assassin was killed by Jack Ruby on November 24, before he could be indicted or tried. 36. Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969 Lyndon B. Johnson Born: 1908 Death: 1973 Vice President: Hubert Humphrey Secretary of State: Dean Rusk Presidency Civil Rights Act of 1964: outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965: abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act. Revenue Act of 1964: Individual income tax rates were cut across the board by approximately 20%. Gun Control Act of 1968: regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners. increasingly focused on the American military effort in Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. 37. Richard Nixon 1969-1974 Richard Nixon Born: 1913 Death: 1994 Vice President: Gerald Ford Secretary of State: Henry A. Kissinger Presidency madman theory: attempted to make the leaders of other countries think Nixon was mad, and that his behavior was irrational and volatile. maintained close relations with the Cuban-American exile community through his friend, Bebe Rebozo, who often suggested ways of irritating Castro. Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace. harassment of activist groups and political figures, using the FBI, CIA, and the Internal Revenue Service. Saturday Night Massacre: executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus light of his loss of political support and the near-certainty of impeachment, Nixon resigned the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening 38. Gerald R. Ford 1974-1977 Gerald R. Ford Born: 1913 Death: 2006 Vice President: Nelson Rockefeller Secretary of State: Henry Kissinger Presidency Pardoned Nixon gave a televised broadcast The federal budget ran a deficit every year Ford was President Ford continued the détente policy with both the Soviet Union and China, easing the tensions of the Cold War Paris Peace Accords:declared a cease fire across both North and South Vietnam, and required the release of American prisoners of war. a follower of Charles Manson, pointed a Colt .45-caliber handgun at Ford 39.James Carter 1977-1981 James Carter Born: 1924 Vice President: Walter Mondale Secretary of state: Cyrus Vance Presidency delivered a televised speech declaring that the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war. declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top of a toxic waste landfill. deregulated the American beer industry by opening access of the home-brew market to the craft brewers, making it legal to sell malt, hops, and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the United States longest-living post-presidential team in American history Camp David Accords: signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David 40. Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 Ronald Reagan Born: 1911 Death: 2004 Vice President: George H. W. Bush
Secretary of State: Alexander Haig Presidency Reaganomics:policies are commonly associated with supply-side economics, referred to as trickle-down economics by political opponents. accelerating a reversal from the policy of détente which began in 1979 following the Soviet war in Afghanistan. declared a war on drugs and advocated more militant policies Immigration Reform and Control Act:Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law. During the Reagan administration, senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo. recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Mikhail Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements told Mr. Gorbachev to tear down a wall 41. George H. W. Bush 1989-1993 George H. W Bush Born: 1924 Vice President: Dan Quayle Secretary of State: James Baker Presidency The Civil Rights Act of 1991: limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination.Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 START I: Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms Gulf War : led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait North American Free Trade Agreement: agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. Vomited on Japanese Prime minister issued a series of pardons during his last days in office Cold War Ends 42. William J. Clinton 1993-2001 William J. Clinton Born: 1946 Vice President: Al Gore Secretary of State: Madeline K. Albright Presidency Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: employers to provide employees job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons plan to raise taxes to cap the budget deficit Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993: federal law that was enacted by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. Brady Bill: imposed a five-day waiting period on handgun purchases launched the first official White House website, whitehouse.gov Lewinsky scandal : Had sexual relations with that woman Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the United States government from the presidency of Bill Clinton until bin Laden's death in 2011 43. George W. Bush 2001-2009 George W. Bush Born: 1946 Vice President: Dick Chenney Secretary of State: Condoleeza Rice Presidency Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the Dot-com bubble. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 : reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantaged students declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27 support for stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements. began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%. After the September 11 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90% 44. Barack Obama 2009- Barack Obama Born: 1961 Vice President: Joe Biden Secretary of State: Hillary Clinton Presidency Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009: amends civil rights act of 1964 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States announced a federal investigation and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months saw when seal team six killed Osama bin Laden Citations U.S History Notes U.S History textbook presidential timeline http://www.whitehouse.gov http://www.cnn.com/ History Channel.com Netflix.com