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Transcript of ANT1101
1. Represents a variety of activities and processes
2. Wants to create and sustain social value
3. Encourages more entrepreneurial approaches for social use
4. Displays degrees of innovation and change
5. Constrained by the external environment
Secondary characteristics of social entrepreneurship
6. May have varying degrees of positive social transformation
7. May take advantage of new opportunies
8. May use business concepts, principles, models and tools
9. May be constrained by relative resource poverty
10. May resolve social market failures
11. May invest the profit in the activity of the venture itself rather than return it to investors
12. May take a wide variety of legal forms
Definition: "Social entrepreneurship as a concept which represents a variety of activities and processes to create and sustain social value by using more entrepreneurial and innovative approaches and constrained by the external environment" - Brouard et al. (2010: 45;48) -Social entrepreneur
- Take the individual's point of view - subjectivity and reflexivity
- Socioanthropological approach Economic point of view Sole proprietorship
General partnership Collective enterprise Individual enterprise Cooperatives
Not-for-profit Social enterprise Theory of exchange Market exchange- marchand activities Redistribution - non marchand activities Reciprocity - non monetary activities "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has" - Margaret Mead http://www.metacafe.com/watch/4079928/social_enterprise_in_africa/ Historical point of view Capitalism: "Is an economic system in which natural resources as well as the means of producing and distributing goods and services, are privately owned" Market economy: "an economy in which the price determination and the resource allocation are determined by the interaction between a buyer and an offerer" - Bibeau (1997: 376) "Organizations which pursue social mission or purposes that operate to create community benefit regardless of ownership or legal structure and with varying degrees of financial self-sufficiency, innovation and social transformation" - Brouard et al. (2010: 39) "They buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by the powers of supply and demand" - Haviland et al. (2013: 137) "A form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated" - Haviland et al. (2013: 135) "The exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties" - Haviland et al. (2013: 132) Three types of reciprocity:
1. Generalized: "A mode of exchange in which the value of the gift is not calculated, nor is the time of repayment specified";
2. Balanced: "A mode of exchange whereby the giving and the receiving are specific in terms of the value of the goods and the time of their delivery";
3. Negative: " A form of exchange whereby the giver tries to get the better of the exchange. Haviland et al. (2013: 132)