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Ancient Education in Israel and Judaism
Transcript of Ancient Education in Israel and Judaism
“Remember the days of old, consider the years of ages past; ask your father, he will inform you, your elders, they will tell you.” (Deut 32:7) History of Jewish Education Elementary school learning was regarded as compulsory by Simeon ben Shetah as early as 75 BCE and Joshua ben Gamla in 64 CE.
“At five years the age is reached for studying the Bible, at ten for studying the Mishnah, at thirteen for fulfilling the mitzvoth, at fifteen for studying the Talmud.” History of Jewish Education The father was obligated as the sole teacher of his children. Caused public schools to be opened in every town Joshua ben Gamla (64 CE) the high priest The institution known as the "be rav" or "bet rabban" (house of the teacher), or as the "be safra" or "bet sefer" (house of the book), is said to have been originated by Ezra' (459 BCE) and his Great Assembly, who provided a public school in Jerusalem House of the Teacher The expense was borne by the community, and strict discipline was observed.
Teachers are refrained from giving corporal punishment.
The ratio of student to teacher is 25:1.
If the number was between twenty-five and forty an assistant teacher ("resh dukana") was necessary; and for over forty, two teachers were required. Expense and Conduct Only married men were engaged as teachers, but there is a difference of opinion regarding the qualification of the "melammed" (teacher). Teaching Staff Significant, emphasis was placed on developing good memory skills in addition to comprehension by practice of oral repetition.
In Ancient Israel, the child would be taught from the six broad subject areas into which the Mishna is divided, including: Texts and subject areas •Zeraim ("Seeds"), dealing with agricultural laws and prayers
•Moed ("Festival"), pertaining to the laws of the Shabbat and the Festivals
•Nashim ("Women"), concerning marriage and divorce
•Nezikin ("Damages"), dealing with civil and criminal law
•Kodashim ("Holy things"), regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple, and the dietary laws
•Tohorot ("Purities"), pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity, including the impurity of the dead, the laws of ritual purity for the priests (Kohanim), the laws of "family purity" (the menstrual laws) Judaism Judaism is the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jewish people.
one of the first known monotheistic religions, that is a religion that believes in a single God, likely dating from between 2000-1500 BC. History of Judaism The birth of the Jewish people and the start of Judaism is told in the first 5 books of the Bible. The Torah (Pentateuch), is a collection of the first five books of the Tanakh (the Jewish Bible), and tell the history of the ancient Jews. It is often referred to as Judaism’s Written Law, and forms the basis for much of the expository writings that followed and became part of the Talmud, or the Oral Law. What Jews believe about Torah? Finished Spark (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Presented by: Group 5 Elmer Detuya
Kim Tariman The term scribe (sopherim) often signified a high administrative official. In the early Second Temple Period it came to mean the literate man engaged in the interpretation of the Torah and the transmission of the oral traditions.
The Pharisees, with the special help of those who were scribes, were the chief scholars of the first century and were in charge of the houses of study and Jewish education in general. The Scribes and the Pharisees Thanks for Listening!!! The ancient Jews were so careful to treat the Biblical text as a delicacy that they instructed their young children by placing honey on the tablets as they were taught the alphabet and the Torah. This left the young student with the lasting impression of the Torah’s having the quality of sweetness. This idea of the Torahs sweetness is echoed throughout the Biblical text with such references as Psalm 19:11; 119:103) (3) to concretize cultural values intoaccepted behavior The goals of Jewish education may be broadly summed up: (1)to transmit knowledge and skills from generation to generation; (2) to increase knowledge and skills; and religious education occupational skills and military training with the essence of all knowledge being the fear of the Lord(Psalms 111:10; Proverbs 1:7) (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr The three main orders of study in ancient Israel consisted of:
4. Numbers (Arithmoi): contains a record of the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai and later on the plain of Moab.
5. Deuteronomy: "second law," refers to the fifth book's recapitulation of the commandments reviewed by Moses before his death. The five books of the Torah are : 3. Leviticus: refers to the Levites and the regulations that apply to their presence and service in the Temple, which form the bulk of the third book. 2. Exodus: "departure" 1. Genesis: "creation" The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (“Israel”) – origins of the Hebrew people (more than 3800 years ago)
Enslaved in ancient Egypt and freed by Moses (more than 3300 years ago)
Hebrew monarchy in the “Promised Land” (The Land of Israel), ends 6th century BCE Tikkun Olam - “repairing this world” through justice and righteousness; through “deed, not creed”
The heart of Judaism is in the home and family, social responsibility and doing Mitzvot (“good deeds” based on God’s commandments)
Through education and hard work we make our lives, the lives of others, and the world, what God intended it to be – Holy! What are Jews really concerned about? In one God, creator of the universe, personal but non-corporeal
In prophets of old – especially Moses, through whom Torah was revealed to the Hebrew people
In Torah (first five books of the Bible), containing religious, moral and social law which guides the life of a Jew
the Hebrew Bible does not include the New Testament As a faith, Jews Believe… The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (“Israel”) – origins of the Hebrew people (more than 3800 years ago)
Enslaved in ancient Egypt and freed by Moses (more than 3300 years ago)
Hebrew monarchy in the “Promised Land” (The Land of Israel), ends 6th century BCE A 4000 year old tradition… “A 4000 year old tradition with ideas about what it means to be human and how to make the world a holy place” (Rabbi Harold Kushner, To Life)
A “covenant relationship” between God and the Hebrew people
A celebration and sanctification of life
A faith, a people, a way of life… Judaism is… Judaism predates Christianity – it is the foundation of Christianity but is not a part of it
Jesus was Jewish, as were his followers and the Apostles
Jews do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a good and wise man who lived and died 2000 years ago – Jews still await their messiah
The Jewish messiah would not be divine. He would be a political figure who restores the Hebrew monarchy and causes peace to reign on Earth
Jews are not concerned about salvation and the “world to come” How is Judaism related to Christianity? 613 commandments found in Torah (“Written Law”)
Talmud (“Oral Law”) – commentary of ancient rabbis that elaborates on how to apply God’s Law in everyday life through:
Dietary rules (Kashrut/Kosher)
Dress and other symbols
Prayer and devotion to the one God
The Temple and Temple rites
Observance of Holy days
Proper social relations between male and female, in business, judicial rulings, etc.
Thus sanctifying life, blessing it in every way As a way of life, Judaism is based on… The Jewish Holidays:
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year)
Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)
Sukkot, the “Festival of Booths” (fall harvest festival)
Simchat Torah – celebrating Torah
Chanukah, the “Festival of Lights” How does Judaism sanctify time? Life cycle celebrations:
Bris – ritual circumcision, sign of the covenant
Bar/Bat Mitzvah – full adult status and responsibility within the religion
Marriage - "Be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 1:22)
Death – funerals, mourning (sitting “Shiva”), and memorials (“Yartzeits”) How does Judaism sanctify life? To Life! To Life! LeChaim! Purim (“Lots”) – a carnival (commemorates events told in book of Esther)
Pesach (“Passover”) – commemorates the exodus from Egypt (events told in Exodus)
Shavuot (“weeks,” Pentecost) – commemorates receipt of Torah at Sinai
Other, minor festivals
Shabbat (Sabbath, 7th day, on Saturday) – the “Day of Rest” More Holy Days… A nation in Diaspora (dispersed)
15 – 16 million in worldwide population
United by a common heritage (an “ethnic” religion), divided in contemporary practice:
Chasidic (Ultra Orthodox)
Reformed (18th century Germany)
Conservative – moderates, response to reform
Reconstructionalism (20th century America) As a people, Jews are… Modern Education in Israel Most schools are subsidized by the state
Compulsory education takes place from kindergarten through to 12th grade.
In 2012, Israel was named the second most educated country in the world according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Education at a Glance report, released in 2012. The education system consists of three tiers: primary education (grades 1-6, approx. ages 6–12), middle school (grades 7-9, approx. ages 12–15) and high school (grades 10-12, approx. ages 15–18). Israeli schools are divided into four tracks: state (Mamlachti), state-religious (Mamlachti dati), Independent (Haredi) schools (Chinuch Atzmai) and Arab.
There are also private schools which reflect the philosophies of specific groups of parents (Democratic Schools) or that are based on the curriculum of a foreign country. Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law of 2000, prohibit discrimination of students for sectarian reasons in admission to or expulsion from an educational institution, in establishment of separate educational curricula or holding of separate classes in the same educational institution, and addresses rights and obligations of pupils. Preparation for Higher Education Israeli matriculation exams (bagrut). These are exams covering various academic disciplines, which are studied in units (yehidot limud) of one to five on an ascending scale of difficulty. mandatory matriculation subjects (Hebrew language, English language, mathematics, scripture, history, state studies and literature), who have been tested on at least 21 units, and passed at least one 5-unit exam, receive a full matriculation certificate. A Bagrut certificate and Bagrut scores often determine acceptance into elite military units, admission to academic institutions, and job prospects.  Purpose of Matriculation Exams Higher education After secondary education, students are generally conscripted into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), but may request an extension of the conscription date to study at a pre-service Mechina, or in a college or university. Those who study in a university at this stage generally do so under a program called atuda, where the tuition for their bachelor's degree is paid for by the army. They are however obligated to sign a contract with the army extending their service by 2–3 years