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Copy of The 1940's

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Kaylee Dunning

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The 1940's

Culture of The 1940s

Inventions/Technology
Recreation/Leisure
Music
Radio Broadcasts
Broadway
Television
Books

What venue was used for entertainment?
• Dances
o Rumba
o Swing
o Jazz
• Toys
o Slinky
o Magic 8 Ball
o Kewpie Dolls
o Circus Sam the Balancing Man
o Silly Putty

Popular activities?
• Games
o Chutes and Ladders
o Scrabble
o Clue
o Candy Land
• Other Pop Culture
o Captain America Comics
• Actresses and Actors
o Lauren Bacall
o Joan Bennett
o Ingrid Bergman
o Humphrey Bogart
o Charles Boyer
o James Cagney
o Joseph Cotton
o Robert Mitchum
Popular Movie Stars/Movies
• Sports Figures
o Ted Williams
o Willie Pep
o Stan Musial
o Bulldog Turner
o Sugar Ray Robinson
o Byron Nelson
o Joe DiMaggio
o Bob Mathias
o Hal Newhouser
o Don Hutson
• Movies
o Easter Parade
o Casablanca
o Red River
o Laura
o It's A Wonderful Life
o Fantasia
*one or two movies trailers*
Popular Sports figures/Sports
• Sports
o Basketball
o Baseball
o Soccer
o NASCAR
o Boxing
o Football Golf
Popular Music/Musicians
• Music
o Jazz
o Big Band
o Swing
• Musicians
o Bing Crosby
o Tommy Dorsey (Frank Sinatra)
o Billie Holiday
o Doris Day

Politics
• Franklin Delano Roosevelt, also known as FDR was the 32nd President of the United States. He served in office from March of 1933 through April of 1945.
• Harry Truman became President in 1945 and held office through 1949.
• FDR started Social Security, brought us out of the depression and dark ages, saved the U.S. from being taken over by Japan and the big German machine and the list go's on including being responsible for a lot of Americans being able to afford medical insurance. Also, he funded research that made polio a thing of the past.
• The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council (NSC), the recognition of the State of Israel, the response to the Cold War and our involvement in the Korean War were also decisions that Truman faced.

Who were the presidents during the decade?
• World War II (1939-1945)
• Germany invades Poland August 23 1939
• Great Britain and France declare war on Germany September 1 1939
• Italy joins the war siding with Germany June 10 1940
• Italy, Germany, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact September 27 1940
• US joined in in December 8 1941 due to Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor the previous day.
• British bomb Köln May 30 1942–May 1945
• Axis Forces surrender resulting in the North African Campaign May 13 1943
• December 16 1944
• Germans fight one last time in the Battle of the Bulge, in an attempt to re-conquer Belgium and split the Allied forces along the German border
• Germans are in retreat by January 1 1945
• Hitler commits suicide April 30 1945
• US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 1945
• Japan formally surrenders April 2 1945

Wars
Other Political Issues That Affected The Country
• During the 1940’s, there were no new political parties that came about. The two political parties that existed was the democratic party and the republican party.

Political Parties That Emerged
Economy
How was the economy at the time?
• America was in a period of economic growth during the 1940s due to The Great Depression ending in 1939.
• Once WWII ended, there was a huge baby boom, which caused even more economic growth due to the demand for supplies such as baby food, furniture, and toys.
14.6%
What was the unemployment rate?
• Yes, there were farm labor shortages during World War II.
• During the war, farmers were being asked to produce much more food with fewer and fewer workers. More and more young men were being drafted or enlisted in the military. The farm labor shortage quickly became severe, especially for fruit and vegetable producers who relied on migratory hand labor.

Were there any shortages?
• Early 40s
o capital gains taxed at half the regular rate or 25 percent, whichever is lower.

• World War II
o the bottom income tax rate climbs from 4 to 19 percent between 1940 and 1943.
o Top income tax rate climbs to 88 percent by 1943.
o By 1945 it hits 91 percent, where it remains until 1964.

How was the tax rate?
• The Great Depression’s end
• World War II
• The Baby Boom

Issues that affected the country’s economy?
Values/Cultures
What Was Important To The American People
Movements/Revolutions
• In the 1940’s, life for women was expanding, the men were at war and women were expected to step up and take the men's place. Women worked in factories, labor intensive jobs and become the attention of society in the entertainment industry. Congress allowed women to serve in the U.S. Navy. Overall, it was one of the moments in history where women were fully accepted.
How did they view women? People of color? Ethnic groups?
• During the 1940’s, people of color were needed more than ever. Some African Americans enlisted to help serve in WWII. Those who stayed in the US worked and made more money than they had ever made, it was during this time that they began thinking it was time to demand equal treatment. On June 25, 1941 Franklin Roosevelt passed an executive order prohibiting employers from discriminating based on race, creed, color or national origin.

• Take a powder – to leave
• Fuddy-Duddy – old-fashioned person
• Gobbledygook – double talk, long speech
• Fat-head – stupid or foolish person
• Chrome-dome – word for a bald headed man
• Eager beaver – enthusiastic helper
• Armored heifer – canned milk
• In cahoots with – conspiring with
• Snap your cap – get angry
• Stompers – shoes
• Flip your wig – to lose control of yourself
• Dead hoofer – poor dancer
• Bathtub – motorcycle sidecar
• Pennies from heaven – easy money
• Ameche – to telephone
• Gone with the wind – run off (with the money)
• Lettuce – money
• Hen fruit – eggs

Were there any popular sayings or slags?
• Nuclear weapons
o Most nuclear weapons were not developed in the US. They were mostly made in the countries which were involved in the second World War. (ex. Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, etc.)
• Microwave oven by Dr. Percy Spencer
first commercial microwave oven in 1947. It was 5 1/2 feet tall, weighed 750 lb. and cost $5,000.
• Computer
• Colored television: The first color television receiver was demonstrated by John Logie Baird in 1940.
Inventions and technologies
• “1940 – Finding a treatment in a haystack: A scientist investigating deaths among farm cows discovers that the moldy sweet clover they've been eating contains a blood-thinning agent. It is developed into warfarin, a life-saving medicine which helps keep blood clots from forming, thus reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke.”
• “1943 – From the ground up: A new antibiotic derived from soil bacteria radically changes how tuberculosis is treated. In the same year, other scientists working with soil bacteria develop the first broad-spectrum antibiotic, for previously untreatable diseases like typhoid fever.”
• “1948 – An early weapon against cancer: Scientists discover that blocking folic acid shrinks tumors, leading to one of the first chemotherapy medicines, methotrexate. The innovation continued to bear fruit four decades later.”
• Jet Engines, Radar and Nuclear Fission technological advances due to the war
• First Transistor developed

Inventions and technologies
• Atomic bomb: devastation and destruction of many towns and countries due to its popular use wars.

• Microwave:
o It allowed the American people to heat up their refrigerated goods.
o Permitted those who worked long hours to avoid cooking when necessary. (They could cook in the weekends and heat their food for dinner any day of the week).
o It almost entirely replaced the traditional American oven.
o “Today, more than 90% of America’s households include a microwave oven”.
• Computers
o “In 12,000 higher economic school districts recently surveyed, 76% had computers.”
o Can be used for:
 Education
 Teaching methods
 Research
 Communication
 Demographic research (research on a population’s age, gender, race, marital status, education, income and more.)
 National, state and governmental businesses
 Gaming
 Programming
 Health advices
 News
 Work
o Increase in productivity and decrease in labor work (refer to graph)
• Television:
o Consumed much time out of the typical American’s day. “Studies have shown that television compete with other sources of human interaction-such as family, friends, church, and school-in helping young people develop values and form ideas about the world around them.”
o “It influenced the way that people think about such important social issues as race, gender, and class.”
o Political elections began to be featured on television
o Commercials and advertisement began, increasing American materialism.
o Allowed worldwide culture to be seen on screen.

Impact On The American People
Impact On The American People
• 1940s- 1950s; The labor movement vs McCarthyism; Anti-Nuclear songs
The 1940s and 1950s saw the rise of music that continued to protest labor, race, and class issues. However, the movement and its protest singers faced increasing opposition from McCarthyism. Example of songs: “This Land Is Your Land. Politics and music were closely intertwined with the members' political beliefs, which were far-left and occasionally led to controversial associations with the Communist Party USA.
• 1945-the death of President Franklin D Roosevelt. The leader of the Soviet Union, STALIN, was an ally of ROOSEVELT. Franklin D. Roosevelt felt betrayed by Stalin during their last year of alliance because he spoke about democracy, while wanting to conquer Eastern European countries and parts of Germany. Truman was the next U.S president. Along with Sir Winston Churchill, the British prime minister, they noticed Stalin’s intentions. Communism has spread to Europe and Asia. The American Marshall Plan was presented to all European countries, but Stalin would not allow his countries to accept the aid. This resulted in the Cold War (approx.. 1947-1991). Stalin lost the battle. The Soviet Union broke up and Russia remained a single country.

• Family unity, strong sense of patriotism, housewives working, everyone helped in wars, sports.
• “The war had challenged stereotypes in the workplace and so women began to enter the employment market in much larger numbers. It soon became apparent that some of the burden of family responsibility needed to be shifted onto the state. Together with the trade unions, the women's movement fought hard for a welfare state system which would provide this and act as a safety net for society's most vulnerable.”
Sources
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• Partly personal experience ( HySt2812 was born in 1939)
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2007. (J.L. GADDIS is Professor of History at Yale University)
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Kingwood Library, 1999. Web. 7 Feb. 2011.
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Fashion and Style
WWII 1939-1945
Home Economics of the 1940s
1941
Agnes Faye Morgan, Chair of the Department of Home Economics at the university of California, Berkeley, is appointed to serve on President Roosevelt's First National Congress
1941
Home economists participate in the war effort by operating canning kitchens and performing other emergency functions until 1945.
1943
The USDA Bureau of Home Economics becomes the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics
1945
The Rural Electrification Administration encourages its local cooperatives to hire home economists because of the post-war consumer boom. Home economists' loyalties are divided between professional ideals to enlighten adults and REA'a purpose of educating rural folk to use more electricity.
1946
The George-Barden Act is passes, making it possible for home economics teachers to supervise home and community projects. It helps to give home economics a status more equal to that of traditional subjects.
1946
Agnes Faye Morgan becomes the first woman member of the Committee of Nine to administer cooperative research funds for state agriculture experiment stations. She serves in this capacity until 1950.
Rosie the Riveter
Eleanor Roosevelt
Education
Full transcript