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The Brain

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by

Alexa Preddie

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of The Brain

Functions:
-Motor Functioning
-High Order Functions
-Planning
-Reasoning
-Judgement
-Impulse Control
-Memory -Connected to the endocrine and nervous systems
-Maintains homeostasis
-Part of the Limbic System
-Controls Emotions
-Regulates food and water intake
-Sleep cycle is regulated Hypothalamus: Parietal Lobe Functions:
-Visual Perception
-Color Recognition Occipital Lobe Functions:
-Cognition
-Information Processing
-Pain and Touch Sensation
-Spatial Orientation
-Speech
-Visual Perception Functions:
-Auditory Perception
-Memory
-Speech
-Emotional Responses
-Visual Perception Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe -Located in the amygdala and hippocampus region. Also, in the front of the thalamus(hypothalamus).
-Plays a role in our emotions and motivations (those related to survival), and includes feelings of pleasure.
Examples: fear, anger, emotions related to sexual behavior, etc. Limbic System -Gather and transmit electromagnetic energy
-They able to send messages over long distances to other neurons due to their electrochemical make-up.
-Neurons are made up of three main parts:
1. Cell body
2. Axons
3. Dendrites Neurons: - the central cell body is the largest part of a neuron and contains the nucleus, cytoplasm and other cell structures

-proteins needed to make other parts of the neuron are created in the cell body 1. Cell Body Control center of the neuron Nucleus -Location: endocrine glands are located throughout the body, from the brain, to the throat, and even above the kidneys.
-Functions as the body's communication network.
-Glands keep the hormones and transmit information to cells throughout the body. Those hormones are responsible for growth, metabolism, sexual development, and function. Endocrine System -Disorders of endocrine system usually are because of an over or underproduction of a certain hormone
-Diabetes Mellitus- excessive thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss(most common endocrine disorder)
-Two basic classes of disorders: problems with hormone production levels, and problems caused by tissues that are unable to respond to hormones Significance
(Endocrine System) -Lesions of hippocampus mess up memory processes
-Lesions of amygdala affect emotional behavior and feeding
-Lesions of hypothalamus produce excitable and aggressive patterns of behavior Significance
(Limbic System) 3. Dendrite: -Receives nerve impulses
-Gateway to pass on nerve impulses to adjacent cells.
-Typically carry signals toward the cell body
-Multiple dendrites per neuron -Nerve impulses are carried along them
-Part of a nerve fiber that conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell
-Usually long and straight
-Only the ends of neurons release the neurotransmitters to stimulate other neurons
-Axons are covered in myelin sheath 2. Axon: -Insulating envelope of myelin that surround the core of nerve fiber

-Facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses

-Helps increase the speed by which information travels along the nerve Myelin Sheath: -distal terminations (farthest end point) of the branches of an axon Axon Terminals: -Cylinder shape
-Bundle of nerve fibers that is connected to the brain
-Runs from the bottom of brain to the lower back
-Transmits information from body organs to the brain
-Sends messages from the brain to other parts of the body
-Nerves are grouped into two groups; ascending and descending
-Ascending: messages from the body to the brain
-Descending: messages from the brain to the body Spinal Cord: Starts at end of brain stem -Connects the cerebrum and the spinal cord
-Motor and sensory nerves travel through
-Sends messages to/from brain and spinal cord
-Controls motor signals send from the brain to the body
-Controls autonomic functions:
Alertness
Arousal
Breathing
Blood Pressure
Digestion
Heart Rate Brain stem- -Controls autonomic functions
-Assists in transferring messages between the brain and spinal cord
-Coordinates body movements Medulla- Cerebellum: -Controls coordination, balance and the muscles
-Contains many neurons that process information
-relays information between cerebral cortex and body
-Two layers; thin white outer layer and dense gray inner layer -Largest part of the brain surrounds 2/3 of the brain
-Covered by the cerebral cortex
-Left and right hemisphere
-Four lobes
-Controls major parts of human functions and thinking:
determining intelligence and personality
Thinking and perceiving
Producing and Understanding Language
Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
Motor Function
Planning and Organization
Touch Sensation Cerebrum- -Has two lobes
-Receives and understands sensory stimuli
-Regulates motor functions
-Part of the Limbic System
-Controls states of consciousness during periods of being asleep and awake
- Receives audio and visual senses
-Sends sensory messages to the cerebral cortex Thalamus: -Deep within the temporal lobe
-Part of the Limbic System
-Determines motivation and emotions:
Fear
Anger
Pleasure
-Places certain memories in certain places within the brain Amygdala -Memory: forming, organizing, and storing
-Limbic System structure
-Connections emotions and senses
-Located in both the left and right brain
-Sends and receives memories from parts of the
brain
-Emotional responses Hippocampus:
Full transcript