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The Taxonomy Of All Living Organisms
Transcript of The Taxonomy Of All Living Organisms
OligohymenophoreaPlagiopylea Aconoidasida Conoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Coccidiasina Gregarinasina Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae Mycetozoa Archamoebae Tubulinea Flabellinea Incertae Sedis Acanthopodida Stereomyxida Protostelia Myxogastria Dictyostelia Dactylopodida Vannellida Thecamoebida Hismatismenida Tubulinida Leptomyxida Arcellinida Choanoflagellatea Filasterea Mesomycetozoea Dermocystida Ichthyophonida Chlorarachnea Proteomyxidea Sarcomonadea Imbricatea/Silicofilosea Thecofilosea Phaeodarea Ebridea Allogromiida Carterinida *Fusulinida Globigerinida *Involutinida Lagenida Miliolida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida Incertae Sedis Xenophyophorea Polycystinea Acantharea Sticholonchea Spumellaria Nassellaria Cyanidiophytina Rhodophytina Cyanidiophyceae Cyanidiales Rhodellophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Bangiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Florideophyceae Rhodellales Compsopoganales Rhodochaetales Erythropeltidales Rufusiales Stylonematales Bangiales Porphyridiales Hildenbrandiales Batrachospermales
Ceramiales The Protista Taxonomic Tree The Fungi Taxonomic Tree * means extinct * means extinct Eubacteria Bacteria are a large domain of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass on Earth, which exceeds that of all plants and animals. Bacteria Gram Positive/No Outer Membrane Gram Negative/Outer Membrane Unknown/Ungrouped Actinobacteria Firmicutes Tenericutes Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae Sphaerobacterales Rubrobacterales Coriobacterales Acidimicrobiales Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales Mollicutes Acholeplasmatales
Mycoplasmatales Bacilli Clostridia Bacillales Lactobacillales Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Aquificae Deinococcus-Thermus Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Aquificaceae Hydrogenothermaceae Deinococcales Thermales Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Sphingobacteria Bacteroidales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae Chroobacteria Hormogoneae Gloeobacteria Chroococcales Cyanophyceae Nostocales Oscillatoriales Pleurocapsales Stigonematales Acidobacteria Holophagae Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Archaebacteria The Archaea are a group of single-celled microorganisms. A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon. They have no cell nucleus nor any other membrane-bound organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria, but the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life, and so they are now classified as a separate domain in the three-domain system. Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Thaumarchaeota Aigarchaeota Thermoprotei Acidilobales Desulfurococcales Fervidicoccales Sulfolobales Thermoproteales Archaeoglobi Halobacteria Methanococci Methanobacteria Methanopyri Thermococci Thermoplasmata Thermoplasmatales Methanopyrales Archaeoglobales Methanobacteriales Halobacteriales Methanococcales Thermococcales Nitrosopumilales Cenarchaeales Nitrosocaldales Animalia: Formed 700 mya with 1,000,000 known species Plantae: Formed 500 mya with 250,000 known species Fungi: Formed 1,000,000,000 years ago Protists: Formed 1,500,000,000 years ago Eubacteria: Formed 3-4,000,000,000 years ago Archaebacteria: Formed 3-4,000,000,000 years ago Animalia Reproduction: Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction. They have a few specialized reproductive cells, which undergo meiosis to produce smaller, motile spermatozoa or larger, non-motile ova. These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals. Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction. This may take place through parthenogenesis, where fertile eggs are produced without mating, budding, or fragmentation. Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things. They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites. Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of the prey. The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic matter. It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours, for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offs pring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations. Animals living close to hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor are not dependent on the energy of sunlight. Instead chemosynthetic archaea and bacteria form the base of the food chain. Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Eukaryotic Plantae Reproduction: See fungi. Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: Plants are photosynthetic, which means that they manufacture their own food molecules using energy obtained from light. The primary mechanism plants have for capturing light energy is the pigment chlorophyll. All green plants contain two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae. Starting with the molecules carbon dioxide and water, photosynthesis converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of glucose and releases oxygen. These sugars are then used as the building blocks which allow the plant to grow. Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Eukaryotic Fungi Reproduction: Fungal reproduction is complex, reflecting the differences in lifestyles and genetic makeup within this kingdom of organisms. Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental states that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules. Asexual reproduction via vegetative spores (conidia) or through mycelial fragmentation is common; it maintains clonal populations adapted to a specific niche, and allows more rapid dispersal than sexual reproduction. The "Fungi imperfecti" (fungi lacking the perfect or sexual stage) or Deuteromycota comprise all the species which lack an observable sexual cycle. Sexual reproduction with meiosis exists in all fungal phyla (with the exception of the Glomeromycota). It differs in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants. Differences also exist between fungal groups and can be used to discriminate species by morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies. Some species may allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating type, while others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself. Species of the former mating system are called heterothallic, and of the latter homothallic. In glomeromycetes (formerly zygomycetes), haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a gametangium, a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete-producing cell. The gametangium develops into a zygospore, a thick-walled spore formed by the union of gametes. When the zygospore germinates, it undergoes meiosis, generating new haploid hyphae, which may then form asexual sporangiospores. These sporangiospores allow the fungus to rapidly disperse and germinate into new genetically identical haploid fungal mycelia. Both asexual and sexual spores or sporangiospores are often actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproductive structures. This ejection ensures exit of the spores from the reproductive structures as well as travelling through the air over long distances. Other fungi, like the puffballs, rely on alternative mechanisms for spore release, such as external mechanical forces. The bird's nest fungi use the force of falling water drops to liberate the spores from cup-shaped fruiting bodies. Another strategy is seen in the stinkhorns, a group of fungi with lively colors and putrid odor that attract insects to disperse their spores. Besides regular sexual reproduction with meiosis, certain fungi, such as those in the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes. It is known to play a role in intraspecific hybridization and is likely required for hybridization between species, which has been associated with major events in fungal evolution.
Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: Absorbtion Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Eukaryotic Protists Reproduction: Some protists reproduce sexually (conjugation), while others reproduce asexually (binary fission). Some species, for example Plasmodium falciparum, have extremely complex life cycles that involve multiple forms of the organism, some of which reproduce sexually and others asexually. However, it is unclear how frequently sexual reproduction causes genetic exchange between different strains of Plasmodium in nature and most populations of parasitic protists may be clonal lines that rarely exchange genes with other members of their species. Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: Nutrition in some different types of protists is variable. In flagellates, for example, filter feeding may sometimes occur where the flagella find the prey. Other protists can engulf bacteria and digest them internally, by extending their cell membrane around the food material to form a food vacuole. This is then taken into the cell via endocytosis (usually phagocytosis; sometimes pinocytosis). The protists that gather energy from the sun (phototrophs) receive their source of carbon through organic compounds or carbon fixation. The others, however, which recieve their source of energy from organic compounds (organotrophs) recieve their source of carbon through organic compounds. Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Eukaryotic Eubacteria Reproduction: Unlike multicellular organisms, increases in the size of bacteria (cell growth) and their reproduction by cell division are tightly linked in unicellular organisms. Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce through binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction. Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 9.8 minutes. In cell division, two identical clone daughter cells are produced. Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly formed daughter cells. Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxobacteria and aerial hyphae formation by Streptomyces, or budding. Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell. Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types. The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy, but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications. Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the kind of energy used for growth, the source of carbon, and the electron donors used for growth. Having all the same nutritional types as the protists kingdom, but each recieving carbon from either carbon fixation or organic compounds. There is but one exception, lithotrophs. Which recieve energy from inorganic compounds. Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Prokaryotic Archaebacteria Reproduction: Archaea reproduce asexually by binary or multiple fission, fragmentation, or budding; meiosis does not occur, so if a species of archaea exists in more than one form, all have the same genetic material. Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides. Both bacteria and eukaryotes, but not archaea, make spores. Some species of Haloarchaea undergo phenotypic switching and grow as several different cell types, including thick-walled structures that are resistant to osmotic shock and allow the archaea to survive in water at low salt concentrations, but these are not reproductive structures and may instead help them reach new habitats. Metabolism & Nutrition Acquisition: Archaea exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are classified into nutritional groups, depending on energy and carbon sources. Some archaea obtain energy from inorganic compounds such as sulfur or ammonia (they are lithotrophs). These include nitrifiers, methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidisers. In these reactions one compound passes electrons to another (in a redox reaction), releasing energy to fuel the cell's activities. One compound acts as an electron donor and one as an electron acceptor. The energy released generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through chemiosmosis, in the same basic process that happens in the mitochondrion of eukaryotic cells. Other groups of archaea use sunlight as a source of energy (they are phototrophs). However, oxygen–generating photosynthesis does not occur in any of these organisms. The nutritional types of archaeal organisms are relatively the same as the nutritional types of the eubacteria kingdom. Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic?: Prokaryotic Taxonomy of Man Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Metazoa Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Superclass Tetrapoda Class Mammalia Subclass Theria Infraclass Eutheria Order Primates Suborder Anthropoidea Infraorder Catarrhini Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hominidae Subfamily Homoininae Tribe Hominini Genus Homo Species Sapiens Subspecies Sapiens The Eubacteria Taxonomic Tree * means extinct The Archaebacteria Taxonomic Tree * means extinct Sources: