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Transcript of EDUCATION
School of the Air
Bilingual at School
How it all started
1:07 - 2:30
Special Education in the USA
1973 Rhabilitation Act
civil rights for the disabled -
public schools accommodated 1 out of 5
1975 Education for All Handicapped Children's Act
more than 1 million children had no access to public school system
1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
"In 30 years we have moved from a segregation paradigm through integration to inclusion"
practice of identifying
The Idea of Homeschooling
= parent-led home-based education
- old tradition from United States
- alternative to public school
> fastest-growing form of education in the U.S.
what is meant in practice
- in general parents/ teachers educate the child at home;
in small groups
- lessons are based on guidelines from public schools
Reasons & Motives
- families are not dependent on public, tax-
funded resources for their child's education
- "children would be estranged from the parents'
norms with "bad" consequences for their belief"
- to customize and individualize the child's
- safer environment because of physical
violence, drugs, psychological abuse
> protection against bad influences (peers)
- to enhance family relationships between
children and parents
- home-schooling is legal in many countries...
- ...but outlawed in others
- compulsory school attendance
- Basic Law: "entire school system under state's supervision"
- assumption that “the parents’ natural right to educate their children
should not be forbidden”
> parents’ philosophy of life gets lost
> conflict between compulsory school attendance and parental right
... Regulation in the U.S.
of social advantages of school:
- interaction with students the same age
- group projects and team work
- social status in a group
- to much influenced by parents
- possible missing quality of integrating in the "real world"
on the Rights of Persons with Disability
entered into force on 3rd May 2008
"personalities with disabilities can access an
, quality and free primary and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live"
UNESCO Salamanca Statement
World Conference on Special Needs Education in June 1994
92 governments & 25 international organizations
inclusive education as norm
every 20th child lives with moderate or severe disability
SEN at some time
Inclusive Education in Germany
UN Convention legally binding since 2009
488 000 students with SEN
75% in special schools
additional special education teacher
mixed-age groups/ multigrade
Bluedorn, Harvey and Laurie. Why Give a Classical Education at Home?. Ed. Practical Homeschooling 26, 1998. Web. 28 Dec. 2013.
Großelümern, Jörg. Homeschooling – Schule zu Hause. Ed. Großelümern, Jörg. 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 Dec. 2013.
Pride, Mary. Getting Started in Homeschooling: The First Ten Steps. Home Life, Inc. May/June 2003. Web. 27 Dec. 2013.
Spiegler, Thomas. Home Education in Deutschland: Hintergründe – Praxis – Entwicklung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften/ GWV
Fachverlage GmbH, 2008. Print.
students with SEN into mainstreaming education
School of the Air
Bilingual at Home
Bilingual at School
Rev John Flynn Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS)
radio network across the country Pedal-powered radio
Miss Adelaide Miethke idea of SOA
first lesson was broadcasted in Alice Springs
interaction with teachers and students
HF radio receivers
NT and parts of NSW video cameras and whiteboard
Home Visits: 1 / year
Mini-Schools 1-2 / year
Excursions & Camps 1 / year
Stirrers with Style: Presidents of the National Council of Women of Australia and its Predecessors.
n.p. n.d. Web. 03.01.2014
Bell, Lucie. “Roll out your swag: It’s School of the Air camp”.
, 13.11.2013. Web. 03.01.2014.
Budd, Roslyn. “Mount Isa School of the Air (Celebrating 90 years of Mount Isa)”.
, 26.02.2013. Web. 03.01.2014.
Royal Flying Doctor Service
. n.p. n.d. Web. 03.01.2014. <http://www.flyingdoctor.org.au/>
School of the Air – Broken Hill.
n.b. n.p. Web. 03.01.2014. <http://www.schoolair-p.schools.nsw.edu.au/home>
“The School of the Air and remote learning”.
21.09.2007. Web. 03.01.2014. <http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/school-of-the-air>
Watchoutforonline. “Royal Flying Doctors & School of the Air – Alice Springs – The Circle”. Online video clip.
YouTube, 11.08.2010. Web. 03.01.2014.
Yazdan, Monique. “Kirby: Irgendwo im Nirgendwo”.
, n.d. Web. 03.01.2014. <http://www.geo.de/GEOlino/mensch/kirby-irgendwo-im-nirgendwo60411.html?t=img&p=2
Inclusive Education in Germany.
German Commission for UNESCO. n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.
Justice and Equality in Education: A Capability Perspective on Disability and Special Educational Needs.
London: Continuum 2008. Print.
The Salamanca World Conference on Special Needs Education.
UNESCO Office in Bangkok: Background. n.d. Web. 20 Dec 2013. <http://www.unescobkk.org/education/inclusive-education/what-is-inclusive-education/background/>
. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2013
U.S. Department of Education.
IDEA: Building the Legacy of IDEA 2004.
nd. Web. 6 Jan. 2014 <http://idea.ed.gov/>
The first Bilingual Education schools opened prior to 1800
In 1839, Ohio became the first state to adopt a bilingual education law
1870: William Harris --> first German kindergarden
First World War: Many bilingual schools were formed to monolingual schools
History of bilingual school system
Raise in lingual competence
Present the country to foreign cultures
Aims of bilingual school system
Bilingual subject deals with the same aspects and on the same level
Progress in oral communication
Daily use of language
Bilingualism influences the effectivity with which children become literate
Literacy admits children opportunities that shape their future
development of symbolic concepts
facilitate literacy acquisition
Advatages of Bilingualism
Bilinguals often have a deficit in oral vocabulary
hinder literacy acquisition
No effect on phonological awareness
Not everyone has the same language abilities
monolingual mode is difficult
Disadvatages of Bilingualism
One language in school, one language at home
Otherwise: Parallel activity and use of both languages: cross language activation
McCardle, Peggy: Childhood Bilingualism: Research on Infancy through School Age. Cromwell Press Ldt.: Great Brittain, 2006. Print.
Seidler: F.F. Runge Gymnasium Oranienburg. Web. 13.01.2014
Rethinking School. n.p. Web. 13.01.2014
Defining the Term "Religion"
What makes a religion a religion?
1. Belief in some
transcending the here and now (force majeure)
linked to ultimate reality
community of believers:
strive together for the reaching of the ultimate reality
Why Religious Education?
Success? Amount? Parent's interest?
Creating an identity
in a pluralist society
regarding the child's future
Norms and values
Prevent social neglect
Different Forms of Religious Education & Schools
though: imparting of values a religion includes might be beneficial
people feel limited and set under pressure
Many different forms of religious education
secular concept of religion vs. religious law
People in favor of RE: Guidance and security
People against RE: Influence and pressure
Balance between strict religious education and non religious education
Religion is a form of education (socialization, creating an identity, imparting of values)
Academic education is beneficial and important opinions about religious education differ
Abdillah, Masykuri. "Religious Education in Indonesia. The Case of Islamic Education."
The Routledge International Handbook of Religious Education.
Eds. Davis, Derek and Miroshnikova, Elena. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.
"A.C.E. Curriculum" Christian Education Europe. Christian Education Europe Limited. n.p. 2012. Web. 17. Jan. 2014. <http://www.christian-education.org/christian-education/curriculum/ace-curriculum/>
Ilishko, Dzintra. "Pedagogical Challenges for Educating an Authentic Religious Identity and Responsible Pluralism."
Religious Education in a World of Religious Diversity.
Eds. Meijer, Wilna A. J. Münster: Waxmann, 2009. Print.
Kosick, Ingo. "Islam."
.Eds. Verein für soziales Leben e.V. n.d. Web. 15. Jan. 2014. <http://www.religion-ethik.de/islam/christentum-judentum.html>
Religiöse Erziehung. Biographische Studien im Höhepunkt der Stufentheorie nach Oser/ Gmünder und religionspädagogische Konsequenzen.
Kassel: Kassel University Press, 2008. Print.
"Teachings" Dharma Realm Buddhist Association. n.p. n. d. Web. 17. Jan. 2014. < http://www.drba.org/education.html >
"Why is Scientology Called A Religion?"
Church of Scientology International. n. p. n. d. Web. 15. Jan. 2014. <http://www.scientology.de/faq/background-and-basic-principles/why-is-scientology-called-a-religion.html>
~ 2.1 billion supporters worldwide
- Accelerated Christian Education schools with A.C.E. curriculum (since 1970)
- bible is basis and literally true
- individualized, character-building curriculum, no grades
- own textbooks: PACEs
- graduation generally accepted --> receive college and university entrance qualifications
~ 1.4 billion followers in the world
- Islamic Educational College in Jordan, since 1947
- "leading educational institute that instills Islamic moderate educational principles based on a bilingual education within its highest standards"
- aims: create responsible students, proud of their religion, Arabic language, national history and civilization
- library, computer lab, gymnasium, swimming pool and a prayer mosque
~ 350 million Buddhists worldwide
- Dharma Realm Buddhist Association, since 1959
- aim: bring the orthodox teachings of the Buddha to the world
- monastic training and lectures
- Developing Virtue Secondary School (Talmage, California), Buddhist High School
- curriculum: similar to public schools, additional: Buddhist Studies, Virtue Studies, World Religions Studies, Meditation, Chinese, Tai Chi
- „bed and board“
- students (teachers, administrators) live there
- some students live nearby and return
- full, weekly, flexible
- approximately 200-3000 euro per month
- some scholarships (if you are highly talented)
- Latin internus: familiar/ located inside
- in England: public/ independent schools
- used to prepare students for their spiritual life
- then for the rich: prepared sons and daughters for their social role
- since the 19th century boarding schools changed their concept: athletical and musical focus
- development of boarding schools with special educational concepts (e.g. Rudolf Steiner (Waldorfinternate), Kurt Hahn (Expeditionary Learning Schools -> Schloss Salem))
- lack of schools in the area (a lot of small schools are closed in the countryside)
- forcement by family
- jobs of parents
- development of a network which can be useful for a wide range of jobs
- easier to accept rules which are not set by parents
Different types of boarding schools
- spiritual schools (mainly catholic and protestant)
- for girls/ for boys only
- athletic schools (especially focussed on soccer)
- for the highly gifted and talented (highly talented musicians and athletes, students who are unchallenged in a „usual“ school)
- Therapeutic schools (for children with disabilities)
- case of hardship (Härtefälle) -> social workers decide whether you can go to a boarding school (problems with family, anorexic,...)
- for special educational needs
- if school lessons are over the bullied students can not escape their „tormentor(s)“
- failing because of the high standards
-> turning to drugs and alcohol
- some boarding schools perform drug and alcohol tests on the students
- intercourse between students often forbidden (punishment, getting expelled)
- relationship between students and parents can suffer due to the lack of seeing each other
Ist eine Internatsschule das Richtige? Welche?, Berliner Zeitung, 30.01.2008. Web. 05.01.2014.
Internate – eine Alternative zur klassischen Schule?, Bildungsportal 05.02.2013. Web. 05.01.2014.
Reimann-Höhn, Renate, Internat - eine Alternative für Ihr Kind? Web. 05.01.2014. <http://www.lernen-und-foerdern.com/Magazin/Erziehung/Internat_-_eine_Alternative_fuer_Ihr_Kind.html>
Bilingual at Home
What does 'bilingual mean?
Awareness of being bilingual
2 other terms aside of code-switching
-> "language choice"
My personal experiences