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circulatory system

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Michael Larsen

on 18 April 2014

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Transcript of circulatory system

Circulatory System
The Inputs and Outputs
The main input of cellular respiration is oxygen. The oxygen goes into the blood which then goes to the tissues.

The main output is Carbon Dioxide. The carbon dioxide goes from the tissues, to the blood, and then to the lungs.
How the Circulatory System Works
The heart pumps blood throughout all the veins and arteries.

The arteries carry the oxygenated blood away from the heart and give it to the tissues. Depleted red blood cells are then returned to the heart from the veins for reoxygenation.

The body's stationary cells are surrounded by extracellular fluid which draws nutrients and oxygen from passing red
blood cells.
Interaction With Other Systems
The circulatory system transports nutrients and oxygen to other parts of the body.

Cells and Tissue
The heart has three layers of tissue; the endocardium, myocardium, and the epicardium.
Cardiovascular Regeneration
The cardiovascular system currently has no way to regenerate lost tissue without outside involvement. The small repairs that occur are the result of cardiomyocites that are essentially cardiac repair cells are produced in the heart tissue.
The Key Functions:

Distributes Oxygen to all the cells
Fights infections
Helps regulate body temperature
Gets rid of wastes
Transports CHO
How to keep it healthy!
The cardiovascular system can be kept healthy in many ways, including:

Avoiding most fats and sweets
Keeping your mouth clean
Stress Management
Eating portions of fish
The Key Functions of cardiovascular system;

Distributes Oxygen to all the cells
Fights infections
Helps regulate body temperature
Gets rid of wastes
Transports CHO

All of the functions of the system are related to the maintenance of homeostasis.

The way that the Cardiovascular system monitors when to begin certain feedback loops is with nodes. there are 2 kinds.
Peripheral Artery Disease

A blockage in the carotid arteries can lead to stroke.

A blockage in the legs can lead to claudication (changes in skin color), sores or ulcers, and feeling tired in the legs.

Total loss of circulation can lead to gangrene and loss of a limb.

A blockage in the renal arteries (arteries supplying the kidneys) can cause renal artery disease (stenosis).

The symptoms include uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and abnormal kidney function.

Dangerous when occuring in the thoracic or adominable Aorta.
Plaque formation at the site of the aneurysm.
A clot (thrombus) may form at the site
Increase in the aneurysm size, causing it to press on other organs, causing pain.
Aneurysm rupture
Can also occur in the Brain
Buerger's Disease
Arteries of arms and legs become blocked causing lack of blood supply to extremities
Pain occurs arms hands, feet,and legs
Gangrene may occur
Varicose Veins
Bulging, swollen, purple, ropy veins seen under the skin
Spider Veins caused by swollen Capillaries
Aching, Stinging, or swelling of the legs at the end of the day
Blood Clots
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Pulmonary Embolism
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (Lack of function of veins due to clotting)
Clotting Disorders
Elevated levels of factors in the blood which cause blood to clot (fibrinogen)
Deficiency of natural anticoagulant proteins (antithrombin)
Elevated blood counts.
Abnormal changes in the lining of the blood vessels (endothelium)
The skeletal system produces blood cells for the circulatory system.

The endocrine system has hormones secreted into the circulatory system.
The lymphatic system has lymph nodes that are secreted into the circulatory system.

The digestive system breaks down food into nutrients, which is then absorbed into the blood and transported to the rest of the body.
The circulatory system transports nutrients and oxygen to the muscular system so it can function properly.

The respiratory system takes in oxygen so that the circulatory system can transport it through the body.
The Connective Tissues supports, protects, and binds other tissues together. Collagen fibers found in the connective tissues help with strength and flexibility.
Epithelial tissues are made of sheets of tightly packed cells that make up blood vessels, the heart, the liver, and the stomach.
Blood Cells
Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide.

White blood cells fight off infections in the body.
Control of Heartbeat

There are two nodes. The SA (Sinoatrial) node, and the AV node (Atrioventricular).

The SA node is often times called the pacemaker of the heart. it creates an electrical signal that is relayed to the AV Node.

The AV node passes this signal on to the rest of the heart, causing different parts to contract at different times.

Structure of blood vessels
Arteries are the large thick vessels that carry the blood away from the heart. They have 3 layers associated with them. An endothelial lining, a smooth muscle layer, and a loose fibrous layer. The combination of these 3 layers allows for elasticity and expansion.

The veins have a similar structure associated with them, though the muscle layer is significantly thinner. Also, in the veins, there are valves that prevent back flow.

Receptors in the cardiovascular system
Baroreceptors lie in the walls of arteries,
respond to the stretch of the arterial walls.
They have both static and dynamic responses.
Static to maintain the pressure levels, and
dynamic to change them.

Arteial Baroreceptors can be found prominently in the Aortic arch and Carotid Sinus.
Aortic arch receptors Join the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve, and the
Carotid Sinus nerves join Vagal fibers and travel to the medulla oblongotis.

There are also baroreceptors in atria and ventricles.
these are low pressure receptors.
In the Atria, the A receptors are activated by contraction of the tissue, and
the B receptors are activated by stretching of the tissue.

Baro receptors act in the regulation of the volume of bodyfluids.
Chemoreceptors detect changes in carbon dioxide and oxygen levels, and the corresponding pH level in the blood.

Chemoreceptors have contributions in respiration, but during asphyxia, their stimulation causes severe vasoconstriction.

Arterial chemoreceptors are found in the carotid artery and aortic arch.
The carotid artery receptors are located near the baroreceptors, and the receptors in the aortic arch are less important than the related baroreceptors.
Arterial receptors follow pH levels, and oxygen pressure.

Cardiopulmonary are mainly found in the ventricles
mainly used for regulating heart activity by responding to Endogenous Peptides.
they also react to various pharmalogical agents, like Veratrum alkaloids, nicotine and serotonin.

Medullary Chemoreceptors are found on the medulla oblongotis
Watch for decrease in pH
watch for changes in oxygen and CO2 levels

Feedback Loops
Negative loop (Blood pressure)
Negative feedback (Blood pressure)
Positive feedback loop (blood clotting)
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