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Transcript of Marcos' Administration
• Self-sufficiency in rice
• Diversification of crops
• Implementation of land reform
• Intensification of community development programs
• Drafting of laws regarding the increase the government floor price of rice and corn from the farmers, to allow foreign loans to construct new irrigation systems and reorganize government agencies to achieve a reduction of operational costs and attain maximum efficiency
I. Social background of the Philippines when Marcos assumed presidency
• Worsening problems of graft, corruption, and criminality
• Growing disillusionment of the people from the government
• Radicalism among the youth
• Bankruptcy of the Philippines with an income of negative P288 million
II. Aims of Marcos’ administration
• To make the Philippines “great again”
• To nurture a new nationalism by looking at the country’s golden past
IV. Marcos’ achievements in his term and the positive effects of his term
• Immediate construction of feeder roads and bridges
Pan-Philippine Highway (from Aparri to Davao)
Country’s longest bridge extending from Samar to Leyte
• Generation of one million kilowatts of power
• Liberalized trade with the free world, hastening the industrialization of the Philippines
• Provision of irrigation to eight regions
• Establishment of the first Export Processing Zone (EPZ) at Mariveles, Bataan
To generate employment and transfer industries to the provinces
• Continuation of close ties with the United States
• Hosted a seven-nation summit conference on the crisis in South Vietnam to strengthen foreign relations
• Settlement of the issue of the normalization of ties between the Philippines and Japan
The Philippines was able to get a reparation package (Reparations Treaty) of $500 million which was used to build the Pan-Philippine Highway
• Participation of the Philippines in the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Its early years were troubled because Marcos issued a proclamation claiming Sabah but Sabah voted to become part of the federation of Malaysia
V. Negative effects of Marcos’ government and program implementations
• Heavy borrowings from foreign sources such as the IMF-WB dragged down the value of the peso to almost P7 to a dollar
• Allegations that Marcos’ was accumulating ill-gotten wealth
• Growing disillusionment of the people because the failure of his administration to address growing poverty while it catered to American interests
• Students in universities became increasingly radicalized
Kabataang Makabayan was formed
Rallies and demonstrations became common
Opposition to the dominance of capitalists, subservient policies of the Philippines to the US and the lack of sincerity to the people was rampant
• Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) was formed by Jose Ma. Sison
• Formation of the New People’s Army by a small faction from the HMB led by Bernabe Buscayno
• Formation of Ansar el Islam by Domacao Alonto and Rashid Lucman, and the Moro National Liberation Front by Nur Misuari
Due to the perception of the Moros being marginalized and dispossessed of their land and heritage
• Inability of the government to curb corruption
VI. Events that led to martial law
• Massacre of demonstrators of the Lapiang Malaya at Taft Avenue, led by Valentin de los Santos
• Re-election of Marcos as president after defeating Sergio Osmena, Jr.
Considered to be the dirtiest and bloodiest election
• Storming of students in Malacanang during Marcos’ SONA
• First Quarter Storm – series of protests
• Violence and crime rates increased
Attempt on the life of Pope Paul VI
The First Lady being a subject of assassination
Plaza Miranda bombing – during the miting de avance of the opposition Liberal Party
• Marcos suspended the writ of habeas corpus
• Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. exposed a plan to declare martial law with code name Oplan Sagittarius which turned out to be a decoy to know who from the military was giving information to the senator
• Defense secretary Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed (which was staged to justify the proclamation of martial law)
* These were all reactions to the failed promises of the previous administrations to solve the growing poverty and the lack of concern to the problems of the masses.
*From the Internet*
• Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects that improved the general quality of life while providing generous pork-barrel benefits for his friends.
• In his first term Marcos tried to stabilize the financial position of the government through an intensified tax collection.
• He also borrowed heavily from international financing institutions to support a large-scale infrastructure works projects.
• He improved agricultural production to make the country self-sufficient in food, especially in rice.
• He gave the Philippines a taste of economic prosperity.
• Many companies invested in the country’s business sector and the country was considered an ideal one.
• Unemployment was low.
Lapses in his term:
*From the Internet*
• He lobbied strenuously for economic and military aid from the United States while resisting significant involvement in the Second Indochina War
• Economic growth slowed, optimism faded, and the crime rate increased.
• He spent too much money and he somehow looted the country.
• Abuse of the military
• The Philippines: A Story of a Nation by Augusto V. De Viana