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Its not what your looking for

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Chris Grime

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Its not what your looking for

The alveoli are tiny little sacs situated inside the lungs. Each alveoli is around 0.02mm wide. They have a very rich and constant blood supply as the surface of the alveoli are covered with pulmonary cappilaries.

They are only one cell thick to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse in and out of them as quickly as possible.

In an adult human, there are around 600 million alveoli in total.
Humans breathe oxygen, which is distributed from the lungs through the bloodstream to tissues in the body. This oxygen is carried principally by hemoglobin, a protein that is a primary component of red blood cells. Oxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin that carries oxygen. It also causes the blood to be bright red.

When the oxyhemoglobin reaches the tissues of the body, the oxygen is released into the cells. The then depleted hemoglobin is known as deoxyhemoglobin, and causes the blood to appear purple. The blood returns to the lung, where the carbon dioxide diffuses out, to be exhaled. Oxygen then diffuses into the blood and binds to hemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin can also be produced by cellular respiration.

The rate and depth of breathing are controlled by homeostatic mechanisms. The homeostatic control system includes receptors, the respiratory control centre and the effectors, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
Structures and Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular responces
When we exercise our contracting muscles constantly require a supply of oxygen and nutrients, to support the energy production. The requirements for oxygen and nutrients are more intense during exercise compared to everyday activities, or when we are resting. Our heart has to beat faster and harder in order to reach these requirements. As a result of continuous training, these demands are frequently me, our heart will gradually get stronger over time.
Cardiovascular system
consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport per minute.
responsible for transports nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removes metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes)
protects the body with white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins
Clotting mechanisms protects the body from blood loss after injuries
regulates body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of cells
powered by the heart ( has the size of a closed fist)
There are three different types of vessels:

carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body
blood is under high pressure caused by the heart
thick outer walls
thick layers of muscle and elastic fibres
carries blood away from the heart
have arterioles
--> small branch of an artery that leads to a capillary


surrounded by smooth muscle layers
blood is under lower pressure than the blood in arteries and low in oxygen
thin walls
thin layers of muscle
elastic fibres
have one-way valves --> makes the blood keep moving in the correct direction
carries blood from the body back to the heart
have venules
--> little vein that goes from a capillary to a vein

smallest blood vessels in the body
very thin walls
allows food and oxygen to diffuse to cells while waste is diffused from cells
connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins

The blood travels from the heart via arteries to smaller arterioles, then to capillaries, then to venules, to veins, and back to the heart.
The blood is distributed to working muscles around the body, by Vascular shunting.

Cardical output:
--> The volume of blood, which is pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min) is called the cardiac output.
--> function of heart rate (number of heart beats per minute) and stroke volume.
Stroke volume:
--> The volume of blood, in milliliters (mL), pumped out of the heart with each beat. Increasing either heart rate or stroke volume increases cardiac output.
Cardiac Output in mL/min = heart rate (beats/min) X stroke volume (mL/beat)
An average person has a resting heart rate of 70 beats/minute and a resting stroke volume of 70 mL/beat.
The cardiac output for this person at rest is:
Cardiac Output = 70 (beats/min) X 70 (mL/beat) = 4900 mL/minute.

Blood is actually a mixture of cells suspended in a light yellowish fluid called plasma. Plasma is mostly water but it contains proteins, sugars, hormones and salts that all flow through the body along with RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.
Platelets are tiny oval-shaped cells made in the bone marrow. They help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the leak.
Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors, which are critical to the clotting process. Platelets and clotting factors work together to form solid lumps to seal leaks, wounds, cuts, and scratches and to prevent bleeding inside and on the surfaces of our bodies.
White blood cells are a key part of the body's system for defending itself against infection. They can move in and out of the bloodstream to reach affected tissues. The blood contains far fewer white blood cells than red cells, although the body can increase production of WBCs to fight infection.
There are several types of white blood cells, and their life spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow.
Red blood cells (RBCs) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues.
RBCs are also the cause of blood typing due to the different type of antigens and antibody's found on or off them.
The components of blood
Structure of the heart
Effects Of The Nervous System
The continual regulation of the heart rate is controlled by the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.

Sympathetic - The sympathetic nervous system is activated by emotional or physical stressors (such as exercise or anxiety). Sympathetic fibres release a chemical called norepinephrine that makes the heart beat faster. The sympathetic nervous system triggers the flight-or-fight response; this is an instant natural reaction that humans or animals will have in times of excitement or danger. This reaction occurs from the cardiovascular response of instantly releasing huge amounts of adrenaline into the bloodstream. For example, when getting chased by something hostile or in a high staked competition game (reaction to competition for the athlete could be positive (fight) or negative (flight)—this reaction is thought to counteract against the parasympathetic system, which generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest.
Parasympathetic - This system opposes sympathetic effects and reduces heart rate when a stressful situation has passed. Parasympathetic responses are managed by a chemical called acetylcholine.
The Lobes
The lobes are essentially different sections of the lungs. There are 3 in the right lung and 2 in the left lung.
The lobes of the lungs vary in size. The superior lobe sits at the top of the lung, the middle or medial lobe sits just below the superior lobe in the right lung, and the inferior lobe sits at the bottom.

The walls of the lobes are made from a bundles of cells and elastic fibres. The elastic fibres allow the lungs to expand and relax without losing their original shape and prevent the lungs from bursting when filled with air.

The different lobes are seperated by thin layers of cells known as fissures. These fissures increase the surface area to volume ratio of the lungs and provide a larger active site for gaseous exchange.
The Pleural Membrane
The pleural membrane is responsible for keeping the two lungs seperate and airtight.
Pleural Membrane
The pleural membrane is formed from squamous epithelium. This is very thin and light weight which means it puts no extra pressure on each of the lobes of the lungs and is very smooth so causes very little friction when it comes into contact with the lungs. Each lung is surrounded by its own pleural membrane.
The Thoracic Cavity
The Thoracic Cavity, also known as the chest cavity, houses the vital organs in the chest and is protected by the thoracic wall.
The thoracic cavity, as is stated in its name, is a cavity. Therefore it does not really have a specific strucure, it is just an air space in which some vital organs such as the heart and lungs sit.
The Visceral and Parietal Pluera
The visceral pluera is the innermost membrane which surrounds the lungs.

The parietal pluera is the outermost membrane which covers the thoracic wall, the walls of the thoraic cavity, and the diaphram. It encloses the lungs, including the visceral plurea and the heart.

The space between the two pleura is called the Pleural Cavity and is filled with Pleural Fluid
Visceral Pleura
Parietal Pleura
Pleural Cavity
The visceral and parietal pleura are both very thin bundles of cells and epithelium, simir to epithelium which lines blood vessels.

Plueral fluid is a thick, relatively viscous substance which helps to lubricate the two pleura.
The Alveoli
The alveoli are found in tiny bundles in the lungs. They are the site where gaseous exchange takes place.
Respiratory Volumes
Tidal Volume
Tidal volume is the total volume of air breathed in and out in one normal breath.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Inspiratory reserve volume is the volume of air that can be breathed in after taking in and holding one normal breath in.

Expiratory Reserve Volume
Expiratory reserve volume is the volume of air that can be breathed out after pushed out after one normal breath out.

Vital Capacity
Vital capacity is the total volume of air that can be forced out of the lungs after one maximal breath in.

Residual Volume
Residual volume is the total volume of air that remains in the lungs after one maximal breath out.

Total Lung Capacity
Total lung capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be held in the lungs at one time, after maximal inhailation.

Inspiration is when air is breathed in through the mouth or nose which then goes into the air passage where as expiration is breathing out impure air containing carbon dioxide is let out. During inspiration, the outer intercostal muscles contract which raises the chest cavity or the ribs and during expiration or exhalation the inner intercostal muscles contract bringing the ribs back to the original position and the diaphragm is also raised back.

In order to draw air into our lungs, the volume of the chest, or thoracic cavity must increase. This occurs because the Intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract. The rib cage moves up and out and the diaphragm flattens to increase the space. This decreases the air pressure within our lungs, causing air to rush in from outside.

need to have the link for the YouTube video open
the link is: www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmpd82mpVO4
The Respiratory System
The main function of the respiratory system is to provide the body with a mechanism in which air can be taken in and breathed out.

Another key function is to facilitate the diffusuion of gases into and out of the bloodstream. Gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen.

the respiratory system has many different parts that make it up, this is what were going to talk about next
The Transportation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen enters the body via the the nasal cavity, flows through all of the different structures previously explained and ends up at the alveoli.

The alveoli have a very rich blood supply, therefore there are a lot of red blood cells. Red blood cells each contain haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a large protein molecule that can combine with oxygen and carbon dioxide.

As there is no oxygen inside the blood and lots of oxygen outside of the blood (in the alveoli), oxygen passes through the surface of the alveoli in a process known as diffusion. As there is lots of oxygen on one side and no oxygen on the other, we say there is a high concentraion gradient for oxygen to move down, into the blood.

Oxygen moves into the blood stream where it quickly combines with haemoglobin, forming oxyhaemoglobin. Each haemoglobin molecule can combine with four oxygen molecules.

The red blood cells, containing oxyhaemoglobin, are then transported back to the heart where they are then pumped around the body to respiring tissues and muscles, where the oxygen dissociates from the oxyhaemoglobin, and leaves bare haemoglobin.

Carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration bind with the haemoglobin to form carbaminohaemoglobin. This is then transported back through the heart and then to the lungs, where the carbon dioxide dissociates from the haemoglobin and diffuses out of the blood into the lungs. Air is then expelled from the body, taking the carbon dioxide with it.

There are chemoreceptors in the brain and the heart that sense the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acid present in the body. As a result, they modulate the respiratory rate to compensate for any disruptions in balance of any of these chemicals. Too much carbon dioxide or acidity and too little oxygen cause the respiratory rate to increase and vice versa. Carbon dioxide chemoreceptors are much more sensitive than oxygen chemoreceptors and, thus, exert an effect with smaller changes.
Chemical Control
Hormonal Responce
Your breathing rate is primarily regulated by neural and chemical mechanisms. Respiration is controlled by spontaneous neural discharge from the brain to nerves that innervate respiratory muscles. The primary respiratory muscle is the diaphragm, which is innervated by the phrenic nerve. The rate at which the nerves discharge is influenced by the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and the acidity of the blood.

The main function of the respiratory system is gaseous exchange. This refers to the process of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide moving between the lungs and blood.
Diffusion occurs when molecules move from an area of high concentration (of that molecule) to an area of low concentration.
This occurs during gaseous exchange as the blood in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli has a lower oxygen concentration of Oxygen than the air in the alveoli which has just been inhaled.
Both alveoli and capillaries have walls which are only one cell thick and allow gases to diffuse across them.
The same happens with Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The blood in the surrounding capillaries has a higher concentration of CO2 than the inspired air due to it being a waste product of energy production. Therefore CO2 diffuses the other way, from the capillaries, into the alveoli where it can then be exhaled.
Haemoglobin is one of the two oxygen binding proteins found in vertebrates. It's function is to carry oxygen in the blood from the lungs to other tissues in the body, in order to supply the cells with the oxygen required by them for oxidative phosphorylation of foodstuffs. Haemoglobin is found in the blood within the erythrocytes (red blood cells). These cells essentially act as a sack for carrying haemoglobin, since mature erythrocytes lack any internal organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc). The other oxygen binding protein found in vertebrates is myoglobin, which stores the oxygen in the tissues of the body ready for when the tissues require it. The highest concentration of myoglobin are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle which requires large amounts of oxygen because of there need for large amounts of energy during contraction.
Structure and Fucntions of the respiratory system
Control of breathing
Blood Vessels

Blood is dispersed around the body through a complex system of blood vessels.
How will this Effect athletes
If Mo Farah performs continuous training (such as long-distance running) his Repiratory system will have several long term effects, which would include:
Increase in Diffusion Rate
Vital Capacity will Increase, this is because the lung increases in size over a long-period.
Minute Ventilation Increases (both inhalation and exhalation)
Intercostal muscles become stronger
Diaphragm becomes stronger, this long term effect occurs due to the muscular growth in the respiratory system.
effects of exercise on the respiratory system
Acute effects
Breathing frequency increases, this is to supply more oxygen to the necessary muscles, as the exertion is pushing those muscles to their limits.
Tidal volume (depth of breath) increases.
O2 uptake increases.
CO2 produced increases.
Long term effects
The oxygen diffusion rate will increase. When exercising the cells in your muscles compensate for the increase in energy demand by increasing the aerobic respiration rate. As oxygen is being consumed at a much faster rate than that of the rate when at rest, the oxygen diffusion rate must be increased to keep up with the demand.
The strength of the respiratory muscles (diaphragm, intercostal muscles etc) will increase.
Minute ventilation (the amount exhaled) can significantly improve with regular maximal training, this is due to increased tidal volume and breathing rate.
There will also be a slight increase in vital capacity (the amount of air that can be expired after maximum inspiration.
Long-term effects
your aerobic fitness will greatly increase due to the overall increase in all the other systems combining. The increased respiratory capacity coupled with other adaptations like increased ATP production will lead to a much heightened level of aerobic capability.
To calculate the recovery of your heart rate, measure how much your heart rate drops in the minute immediately succeeding exertion. With prolonged physical activity, the recovery rate will increase.
Cardiac hypertrophy will occur, meaning much like the skeletal muscles gaining size, the heart will become enlarged.
During exercise your blood pressure increases quite a lot, however it dramatically decreases upon resting. With frequent exercise your resting blood pressure will also gradually decrease, as will your resting heart rate. The heart rate decreasing is due to increased stroke volume.
Capillarisation will cause the overall blood volume to increase.
effects of exercise on the Cardiovascular system
Short term effects
Thermoregulation - It is the blood's responsibility to regulate the temperature within the body.
You will experience increased blood pressure during exertion, until an eventual slight decline after long period. A drastic drop in blood pressure will happen after you finish exercising.
Your blood will thicken due to sweat production - known as cardiovascular drift.
Increased cardiac output due to an increased heart rate and stroke volume.
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