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Biology : Spring Semester

Chapters 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26+
by

Vanessa Dreessen

on 7 April 2015

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Transcript of Biology : Spring Semester

Chapters 13, 15 - 26+
Biology : Spring Semester
(The Life Around Us)
Early Application
Farming!
Breeding
Selective Breeding: choosing traits to enhance
Inbreeding: breeding closely related to keep traits consistent
Hybridization: combining qualities from two very different parents
Hybrid Vigor: strong, hearty combination of species
Hybrids are usually STERILE (cannot reproduce)
Genetic Engineering
(Chapter 13)
Earth History
Earth History and Darwin
The Scientific Explanation
(Chapter 17/15)
Speciation (16)
Speciation and Classification
(Chapters 16/18)
Bacteria
Bacteria and Viruses
(Chapter 19)
Protozoa
Kingdom Protista
(Chapter 20)
Characteristics
Fungi
(Chapter 21)
Diversity (Ch. 22)
PLANTS
(Ch. 22-25)
Basic Characteristics
Animals
Chapter 26 - 33
Tools
Restriction Enzymes
Gel Electrophoresis
Vectors
Plasmid
Restriction
Enzymes
Gel Electrophoresis
Plasmids
Darwin
How?
What?
Who?
Redi
Pasteur
Miller and Urey
What?
Half-Life
Radioactive decay of C-14
From Prokaryotes to
Multicellular Eukaryotes
How?
Chemosynthesis
RNA first, then DNA
No oxygen on the earth until
the existence of
Photosynthetic Autotrophs
Who?
Research during a voyage on the
HMS Beagle (Galapagos Islands)
Waited many years to publish findings on evolution and the changing of species
What?
On the Origin of Species
Published in 1859
1. variation
2. competition
3. selection
How?
NATURAL
SELECTION
Patterns of Evolution
1. Divergent Evolution
2. Convergent Evolution
3. Coevolution
Homologous Structures

Vestigial Organs
13
17/15
16/18
19
21
22-25
26+
Miller-Urey
Experiment
new species evolving from a common ancestor
Natural Selection acts upon
genetic variation
within a population
Organisms that are the most
fit to survive will pass on
their alleles (versions of genes)
to the next generation of the gene pool
(the collection of genes in a population)
Three types of Selection
1. Directional



2. Stabilizing




3. Disruptive
organisms of the same species can
reproduce and have viable offspring
these are
biological species
sometimes organisms look the same
physically or they look very different
these are
morphological species
some organisms choose mates based
upon physical traits or certain behaviors
this is
sexual selection
sometimes a population of a species is physically
separated and cannot interbreed...eventually
they will become so genetically different that
they can no longer reproduce viable offspring
this is known as
geographic isolation
Speciation in Action
Classification (18)
Who?
Linnaeus
= first person to group organisms
into hierarchical categories; uses Latin

Binomial Nomenclature
= the two name
naming system using Latin : Genus species

examples: Homo sapien (humans)
Orcinus orca (orca or killer whale)
Chaos chaos (a type of protozoan)
Polemistus chewbacca (type of wasp)
TAXONOMY
the science of grouping/classifying organisms based upon their
presumed natural relationship
(we have classified only about
10%
of the organisms on Earth)
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
family tree showing possible evolutionary relationships among
groups of organisms
SYSTEMATICS
organizing diversity in the context of evolution
relatively new system of phylogenetic classification, using
certain features of organisms called "shared derived characteristics”
to establish relatedness
CLADISTICS
Example of a CLADOGRAM based upon rRNA (ribosomal RNA) sequences of 3,000 organisms.
Zoom in and explore!
Why?
1. organization for study purposes
2. common names may be misleading (ex: starfish, jellyfish, goldfish)
3. scientists need a universal naming system (like metrics)
4. shows relationships between organisms (evolutionary path)
How?
1. fossil records
2. morphology (structure/forms in organisms)
3. embryological patterns of development
4. chromosomes and macromolecules
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
For plants "Phylum" is called "Division"
for bacteria "species" can
be called a "strain"
Three Domains:
Archaea
Bacteria
Eukarya
Six Kingdoms within
the three domains:
Archaea Bacteria Eukarya
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Animalia
Plantae
Fungi
Protista
examples: methanogens, halophiles, thermoacidophiles
examples: blue-green bacteria, E. coli, Streptococcus
examples: anemones, sponges, insects, birds, mammals, etc...
examples: mosses, ferns, grasses, trees, etc...
examples: mushrooms, molds, yeasts, etc...
examples: amoebas, Euglena, Kelp
most inclusive
least inclusive
large populations = more variation
small populations = less variation
This tree was generated by David M. Hillis, Derrick Zwickl, and Robin Gutell (University of Texas) based on an analysis of small subunit rRna sequences obtained from about
3,000
species from throughout the Tree of Life. When possible, sequences were chosen so the that the number of species included in a major group is roughly proportional to the number of known species in that group. The total number of species included is approximately the
square root
of the number of species thought to exist on Earth.
http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/antisense/tree.pdf
Endosymbiotic Theory
Viruses
1. Prokaryotic (no nucleus, no organelles)
2. Ribsomes present
3. Very small (10x smaller than eukaryotic)
4. Unicellular
5. Some contain chlorophyll pigment
Reproduction
1. Asexual =binary fission
2. Sexual = conjugation
3. Transformation = take in DNA from environment
Binary Fission
Conjugation
Transformation
Classification
Domain Archaea
Domain Bacteria
Kingdom Archaebacteria
1. Methanogens
2. Thermophiles
3. Halophiles
4. Acidophiles
These live in extremely harsh
environments on Earth
(maybe on other moons/planets)
Kingdom Eubacteria
1. Cyanobacteria
photosynthetic
blue/green color
2. Schizomycetes
found everywhere
three shapes:
1.
Bacillus
(rod)
2.
Spirilla
(spiral)
3.
Coccus
(sphere)
Gram Staining
Bacteria can be identified through gram staining
to see what type of cell wall they have
Gram +
= thick peptidoglycan layer and one cell membrane
Gram -
= thin peptidoglycan layer and two cell membranes
Resistance
Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to many
antibiotics because of their double membrane
(not to mention the fact that many bacteria become
resistant to antibiotics through adaptation and evolution)
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/27/business/27germ.html?_r=0
Can classify by:
Shape, Cell Wall, Nutrition, Respiration
1. Capsid - protein coat surrounding genetic material
2. Nucleic acid - genetic material of the virus (DNA or RNA)
3. Envelope (some) - extra layer of some viruses over the capsid made of carbohydrates, lipids, and surface proteins (all viruses that infect animals have an envelope)
Viruses are NOT a living organism
1
. Do not GROW
2
. No cells
3
. No Metabolism
4
. Cannot reproduce without host
Replication
Lytic or Lysogenic
1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Replication/Synthesis
4. Assembly
5. Release
1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Integration of DNA into host Genome
4. Stimulus
5. Enters step 3 of Lytic Cycle
Classification
Shape
1. Filovirus
2. Polyhedral
3. Helical
4. Binal
Host
1. Plants
2. Animals
3. Bacteria
Function
1. Retrovirus:
Injects RNA which is
reversed transcribed
into DNA which is
then integrated
into the host
genome (HIV)
Vaccination
injection of weakened or "killed" pathogen; prepares and trains the immune system to respond quickly and prevent sickness
Virus-Like
Viroids
- tightly wound pieces of RNA (no capsid) that can infect plants
Prions
- strands of proteins that can infect animals
(Mad Cow Disease)
Structure
Respiration
many bacteria can survive with or without oxygen
obligate anaerobe
- must live in oxygen FREE conditions
faculative anaerobe
- can survive with or without oxygen
Summary of
Bacteria
and
Viruses

with an intro to
Protists
(Ch. 20)
Structure
Algae
Unicellular
Dinoflagellates - photosynthetic with cellulose plates
Decomposers
The Good, The Bad, and The UGLY
Sarcodinians
move using
pseudopodia
(fake feet); extensions of cytoplasm
example: Amoeba proteus
Zooflagellates
move using
flagella
(whip-like);
flagella moves in corkscrew
motion to propel protist
through the water
example: Trypanosoma
Ciliophorans
move using
cilia
(tiny hairs);
propel through water
example: Paramecium
Sporozoans
no form of movement
example: Plasmodium
Animal-Like Protists
Plant-Like Protists
Fungus-Like Protists
Multicellular
Green Algae
(Chlorophyta) - can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
example: Volvox
20

Diatoms - photosynthetic with silica shell
major contributor to
Earth's oxygen levels

Euglenoids - auto and heterotrophic

Red Algae
(Rhodophyta) - distinct colors, found in salt water enviroments

Brown Algae
(Phaeophyta)- found in cool coastal waters, reproduce through
alternation of generations
example: Giant Kelp, seaweed
Plasmodial Slime Molds
brightly colored
can move to better environment (
plasmodium stage
) or will form a
fruiting body
to reproduce and release spores
Cellular Slime Molds
Feeding stage are single cells, only come together in a clump of cells, also called a
pseudoplasmodium
which then forms the reproductive fruiting body to release spores
Water Molds
freshwater ecosystem decomposer
can be parasitic, infecting gills of fish
Plankton - base of ocean food chains
Phytoplankton - 70% of photosynthesis on Earth

Diatoms - used in toothpaste, filters, and cosmetics

Agar - used in many foods (a gel derived from seaweed)

Control bacteria populations
Cause of various diseases

Giardia - intestinal infection caused by consumption of
cysts from contaminated water

Trypanosoma - transferred from bite of the tsetse fly
causing African sleeping sickness

Phytophtora - potato blight
Malaria
Caused by the transmission of the
Plasmodium
sporozoan
from mosquito bites
Sickle cell anemia
a disorder resulting from the adaptation by the human body to the Plasmodium protozoan
Diversity
Role
Eukaryotic
Cell Wall =
Chitin
Heterotrophic
Saprobes
Hyphae
filaments bundle to form the
mycelium
Zygomycota (Molds)
Ascomycota (Sac)
Basidiomycota (Club)
Deuteromycota (Imperfect)
(grouped by mode of reproduction)
Asexual
Sexual
Budding, Fragmentation, and Spores
Fusion of (+) and (-) Hyphae
or
asexual and sexual reproduction
Unique structures:
Rhizoids
= absorb, anchor
Stolons
= connect rhizoids
Sporangia
= produces spores
Example: Black bread mold
over 60,000 species
asexual and sexual reproduction
Sexual reproductive structure
Ascus
= sac like, holds ascospores
Examples: Yeasts, Morels, Lichens, Mildews
asexual and sexual reproduction
Sexual reproductive structure
Basidiocarp
= mushroom, holds basidiospores
Some mushrooms are edible
SOME MUSHROOMS ARE
POISONOUS
asexual reproduction ONLY
Asexual reproductive structure
Conidia
Examples: Penicillium, Ringworm, Athlete's Foot
decomposers
Symbiotic Relationships
Lichens
= fungi + photosynthetic partner (bacteria or algae)
Mychorrhizae
= fungus and plant root partnership
Medicine = Antibiotics like penicillin
Reproduction (Ch. 24)
Structure (Ch. 23)
LAND PLANTS
Bryophytes
Seed Vascular
possibly evolved from
green algae many millions
of years ago, migrated to land
Seedless
Vascular
(Non-Vascular)
Mosses
Liverworts
Hornworts
Alternation of Generations
Gametophyte generation is dominant
*NO XYLEM, NO PHLOEM*
Ferns
Whisk Ferns
Horsetails
Club Mosses
Alternation of Generations
Sporophyte generation is dominant
*TRUE XYLEM & PHLOEM*
*TRUE XYLEM & PHLOEM*
Gymnosperms
"naked seeds" or cones
Cycads
Gingkos
Conifers
Angiosperms
flowers
Monocots
Dicots
No vascular tissue (no transport system for water and sugars)
Vascular tissue (transport system for water and sugars)
NO seeds
Seeds
Roots
Stems
Leaves
1. Anchor into soil
2. Absorb water/minerals
3. Storage (example: carrot)
Zones
1. cell division (meristem)
2. cell elongation
3. cell differentiation (or maturation)
Root cap: protects root pushing through soil
Root hairs: increase surface area
prop roots
taproot
1. Transport water/sugars
2. Support for leaves
3. Storage (example: onion)
Zones
1. cell division (meristem)
2. cell elongation
3. cell differentiation (or maturation)
node: where leaves connect to stem
herbaceous: flexible, soft
woody: stiff, hard
Woody Stems
Each tree ring consists of springwood and summerwood
(secondary growth)
springwood
summerwood
one ring
1. Photosynthesis (palisade)
2. Gas exchange (CO2 in, O2 out)
Transpiration: water vapor exits leaves through stomata

Translocation: sugars travel from leaf (source) to storage (sink) through phloem tissue (sieve tube cells)
XYLEM = H2O Transport
PHLOEM = Sugar Transport
Gymnosperms: Cones
Angiosperms: FLOWERS
The Perfect Flower (male and female)
Adaptation and Response (Ch. 25)
Male
(makes pollen)
Female
(contains ovules)
Future
Fruit
Fruits
(one flower, one ovary)
(one flower, many ovaries)
(many flowers and ovaries fused)
double fertilization = produces endosperm (starchy nutrients)
Hormones
Abscisic Acid = seed dormancy,
Auxin = stimulates cell elongation, inhibits lateral branching
Cytokinins = stimulates lateral growth
Gibberellins = growth, stimulates bolting (flowering)
Ethylene = gaseous, stimulates fruit ripening
Response
Gravitropism (Geotropism) = response to gravity, roots (+), shoots (-)
Phototropism = response to light (auxin stimulates cell elongation)
Thigmotropism = response to touch
Photoperiodism = blooming response to amount of light/darkness
Phototropism
Gravitropism
Thigmotropism
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Fish
Class Agnatha
Class Chondricthyes
Class Osteicthyes
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Mammals
Monotremes
Marsupials
Placental Mammals
Sponges (Porifera)
Cnidarian (Cnidaria)
Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
Roundworms (Nematoda)
Segmented Worms (Annelida)
Mollusks (Mollusca)
Arthropods (Arthropoda)
Echinoderms (Echinodermata)
Skeleton
Hydrostatic (cnidarians)
Exoskeleton (arthropods)
Endoskeleton (echinoderms)
Filtering Systems
Diffusion (cnidarians)
Flame Cells (flatworms)
Malpighian Tubules (Insects - arthropod)
Nephridia (segmented worms)
Structures
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