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The Physics of Skeet Shooting

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Miriam Brooks

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of The Physics of Skeet Shooting

The Physics of Skeet Shooting
Angle
Depending on whether you are shooting a High House target or a Low House target determines what angle you should be aiming your gun. Shooting a high house clay from station one requires you to begin with a very wide angle upwards, while shooting a low house requires an almost horizontal angle.
History
Lead
A major determinant in whether or not the clay pigeon will be hit on a shot, is the lead you have. In skeet, lead is the amount of distance necessary between your gun and the target in order to hit it. From each station, the amount your gun should be leading the clay is different. From Station 1, you lead in front of the clay by what should look like one foot. As you continue around the field, your lead extends to four feet, and then drops back down to one at Station 7. Whether or not you will hit the target depends on time, speed, and distance. These factors translate into the necessity of shooting a certain distance ahead of each target so that the shot string from your gun and the target meet along the target's flight path, resulting in a "dead" bird. It is important, once your gun is positioned with the correct lead, and you have pulled the trigger, to swing through your shot. You have fired in front of the target, but the bird continues to move in the projected arc.
The sport of shooting skeet began in Andover, Massachusetts in 1920. Charles Davis, owner of Glen Rock Kennels and an avid hunter, was looking for a way in which he could improve his field shooting. Trying many different simulations, Davis eventually came up an idea working out of a 50 yd. circle and one trap. Due to its clock shape with 8 stations, he first dubbed his sport "Shooting Around the Clock." Fine tuning his game, Davis eventually cut the size of the field in half and put a second trap on the opposite end. As Davis' training field for bird hunting became more popular, it ultimately became today's Skeet.

Conservation of Momentum
Newton's Third Law- "every action has an equal and opposite reaction"
-linear momentum: motion in a straight line
-angular momentum: rotational motion
bullet: mass (m1) and speed (v1) equal momentum (P1)
m1v1=P1

-to keep net momentum of bullet-gun system 0, gun recoils with momentum in opposite direction
m1v1=-m2v2
The Game of Skeet
A modern day Skeet field consists of eight stations. Seven of the stations are arranged in a half moon between the two trap houses, and one station is directly between them. The high house, on the left side of the field, throws its targets from a trap 10 feet above the ground. The low house, on the right side, throws from only 3 1/2 feet above the ground. Both targets rise to a max height of 15 feet when crossing over the center stake. When shooting doubles, the two targets should cross at the center of the field.
For the lesson, we will be using 20 gauge shells

Gauge/ Bore
12
20
28 .410
Ounce Weight
1 1/8 oz.
7/8 oz.
3/4 oz. 1/2 oz.
Grain Weight
492
383
328 219
Shot Size
9
9
9 9
Shot Diameter
.08
.08
.08 .08
Pellet Count
658
512
366 293
TYPICAL SKEET SHOT SHELL CHARACTERISTICS
bird moving at 40 mph= 58.6 ft/s
shot traveling 1000 ft/s (shot actually travels at about ,but for convenience...)
distance from shooting stand to clay=100 feet

shot traveling at 1000ft/s takes .1 sec to travel 100 ft


Problem: As the shot is traveling toward the clay, the clay has also been moving forward for the same amount of time. In the .1 sec it has been moving, the clay itself has traveled 5.86 ft.
Projectile Motion
When fired, both bullet and clay are projectiles. They are moving both horizontally, parallel to the ground, and vertically, first up, then down. Once a bullet leaves the muzzle of the gun, it begins to fall. The speed at which it is fired contributes to the amount of time a bullet spends horizontal, and the amount of time it takes to reach its target. Due to the great speed of a bullet leaving a gun, little time is allowed for it to fall before reaching the clay.
A clay pigeon is launched into the air and the shooter shoots it while it is at its highest point of travel. If the pigeon was hit when it was 25 meters away horizontally and above the launch point by 40 meters, how fast was it moving when launched at 77.5˚?
∆x=25 m
∆y=40 m
V_ix=V_i cos⁡〖77.5°〗
V_x=V_i cos⁡〖77.5°〗
a_x=0 m/s^2

V_iy=V_i sin⁡〖77.5°〗
V_y=0 m/s^2
a_y=-9.8 m/s^2
V^2=V_i^2+2a∆y

0^2=(V_i sin⁡〖77.5)〗^2+2(-9.8)(40)
0=.953V_i^2-784
.953V_i^2=784


40 m
25 m
V_i=28.7 m/s^2
recoil = -muzzle velocity
F=ma
As shooting a moving target is one of the most difficult types of shooting, skeet shooting typically requires the use of a shotgun. To help with the accuracy of your shot, as long as you maintain a correct lead, a shotgun fires a large number of projectiles simultaneously. The idea is to use the power of statistics, of large numbers, in accomplishing the task at hand. Although one projectile alone has a rather low probability of hitting the target, several hundred projectiles together increase the chance of at least one hit by a factor of several hundred times.
Sources
Slimp, Jr., Jack B. The Real Skeet Shooter's Guide! N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

"The Science of Shooting." oglethorpe.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.

"The Physics of Clay Pigeon Shooting." ShootingUK. N.p., Feb. 2010. Web. 13 May 2014.

'Case', . "Skeet: Beginner's introduction to a truly American shotgun game." scskeet.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.

National Skeet Shooting Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.

"Newton's Three Laws of Motion." N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.





Conservation of Energy
When a target is correctly hit, the energy from the shot is transferred to the target, causing it to break in flight.
When the shot hits the target, it reverse motion and flies in the opposite direction. The force of the shot pushes the target back.

V_i= 28.7 m/s
θ=77.5˚
g=9.80 m/s^2
R= V_i^2 (sin(2θ))/g
R= ((28.7)^2)sin(2(77.5))/9.80
R= 35.5 m (when it hits the ground)
sin77.5˚=V_iy/28.7
V_iy=28.02 m/s
cos77.5˚=V_ix/28.7
V_ix=6.21
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