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Photography

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by

Matthew Braney

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Photography

is the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface such as film or an image sensor PHOTOGRAPHY 1915 George Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable. In 1888 he perfected the Kodak camera, the first camera designed specifically for roll film. In 1892, he established the Eastman Kodak Company, in Rochester, New York. The first Brownie, introduced in February, 1900, was a very basic cardboard box camera with a simple meniscus lens that took 2¼-inch square pictures on 117 rollfilm. With its simple controls and initial price of $1, it was intended to be a camera that anyone could afford and use, hence the slogan, "You push the button, we do the rest." A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. One of the lenses is the photographic objective or "taking lens" (the lens that takes the picture), while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level. It was first developed around 1870, due to the realization that having a second lens alongside the taking lens would mean that one could focus without having to keep swapping the ground glass screen for the plate, reducing the time required for taking a picture. Paul McCartney Land cameras are instant cameras with self-developing film named after their inventor, Edwin Land, and manufactured by Polaroid between the years of 1947 and 1983. 1965 Invented in 1949, the single-lens reflex (SLR) camera is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and hence see exactly what will be captured, contrary to viewfinder cameras where the image could be significantly different from what will be captured. Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman Kodak invented and built the first digital camera using a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975.

Consumer and Professional digital cameras wouldn't hit the market for another 25 years The Minolta MAXXUM 7000 was introduced in 1985. It was the first camera to feature both integrated autofocus (AF) and motorised film advance, the standard configuration for later amateur and professional SLR cameras. The Nikon D1 introduced on June 15, 1999. It featured a 2.7 megapixel image sensor. It was the first DSLR developed entirely by a major manufacturer, and at a cost just under $6,000. In 1998 Sony introduced the MAVICA, the first digital camera to save files directly onto a FLOPPY DISK. Minolta was the inventor of the modern integrated AF SLR, it took Konica Minolta a long time to enter the digital SLR market, a delay that may have proved fatal.

On January 19, 2006, Minolta announced that all DSLR production would continue under Sony's management. On January 19, 2012: Kodak filed for Bankruptcy
On February 9, 2012: Kodak announced that it would exit the digital image capture business, phasing out its production of digital cameras. Once the digital camera business is phased out, Kodak said its consumer business will focus on printing Today, the average consumer point & shoot camera can take 16 megapixel still images and HD video. On an annual basis, manufacturers such as Sony, Nikon, Canon, Panasonic, Fuji, Olympus and Samsung produce a new line of pocket sized cameras. While thousands of these cameras have been made over the last decade, some companies are starting to phase them out due to the rising popularity of smartphone cameras.

A point and shoot camera starts at $120 in cost. But what you buy this year might be obsolete the next. DSLR cameras are much more expensive and have been
releasing new cameras every other year. Entry level DSLRS can cost $500-600 dollars with a kit lens. While semi professional and professional cameras can cost anywhere from $1,2000 to $5,000 on just the body. Professional lenses start at $1,2000. In 2010 Sony released some of the first types of Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Cameras. There cameras are compact like point and shoots, but had the advantage of larger sensors and interchangeable lenses that DSLRS have. THE HISTORY UNDERSTANDING YOUR CAMERA Photographic cameras were a development of the camera obscura, a device that consists of a box or room with a hole in one side. Light from an external scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside where it is reproduced, upside-down, but with color and perspective preserved. The image can be projected onto paper, and can then be traced to produce a highly accurate representation. This dates back to ancient Chinese and Greeks WET PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY was a very inconvenient form which required the photographic material to be coated, sensitized, exposed and developed within the span of about fifteen minutes, necessitating a portable darkroom for use in the field ISO ISO (Film Speed) is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light.

The higher the ISO number, the brighter but gainer an image can be.

OUTSIDE: 100 ISO
200 ISO

INSIDE & OUTSIDE:
400 ISO

INSIDE:
800 to 1600 ISO Styles Of Photography SHUTTER SPEED Shutter Speed is a common term used to discuss exposure time, the effective length of time a camera's shutter is open. The speed of the shutter can effect of a picture and deals with seconds and fractions of a second.

Most DSLRS and cameras that have a MANUAL setting can adjust the shutter speeds.

Slow Shutter Speeds
4, 3, 2, 1 seconds 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30 seconds

Fast Shutter Speeds
1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 seconds FAST SHUTTER SPEEDS: FREEZE MOTION SLOWER SHUTTER SPEEDS: MOTION BLUR
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