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Leadership & Communication in Sport

KIN 247: A model of leadership and the psychology of coaching and giving feedback

Sean Mullen

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of Leadership & Communication in Sport

Leadership & Communication
in Sport - Part I Dr. Sean Mullen Leadership in Sport & Exercise Leadership in Exercise Contexts Situational Characteristics Leadership = "the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals” (Barrow, 1977)
-What makes for a good leader?
-What are the consequences of leadership?

Power - “the ability to influence or change the attitudes or behaviors of others.”
Power is inherent in leadership
power with (empowerment)
power over (dominance and control) What do coaches have power over?
Making the team
Amount of playing time
Attention, feedback, punishment
Types of leadership power:
Expert power - knowledge
Legitimate power - status
Referent power - respect
Reward power - access to rewards
Coercive power - access to punishments Coaches & Power Trait approach
“leaders are born, not made”
little research support, no leader “profile”

Behavioral approach
“...made, not born”
implies that anyone can be taught to be a leader

Interactional approach - leadership styles & traits with situational factors interact to determine leadership effectiveness Approaches to Studying Leadership Interactional, sport-specific model

Leadership contingent on:
Situational characteristics of leader & group
Leader characteristics (personality, experience)
Member characteristics (age, ability level)

Optimal consequences depend on congruence among leader behaviors:
Required (by context)
Preferred (by members)
Actual (what coach does) The Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership (Chelladurai, 1984, 1990) The Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership (Chelladurai, 1980) Decision-making styles – which is best?
Autocratic, Democratic, Participative
Seems that consultative style may be most preferred, although flexibility is key

Studies of John Wooden (e.g., Tharp & Gallimore, 1976)
Instruction most common behavior
Praise rarely used – but is this a good thing? Coaching & Leadership What is the role of the exercise leader?
Personal Trainers
Group Exercise Leaders
Role modeling not often discussed but may be critical for retention Preferred leadership styles?
age/competitive level/yrs experience
nationality (western v. eastern)
sport type (modern, traditional)
task type — independent v. interdependent sports Types of Research Based on MML Perceived leader behaviors & satisfaction has been linked to individual and team performance, type of leadership, team climate

higher training & instruction, + feedback, social support, democratic style, & lower autocratic greater satisfaction w/ aspects of the sport experience Research Based on MML Horn’s (2002) working model -> MML approach Athletes’
level/type of
motivation Athletes’
preferences of
characteristics Athletes’
perf &
behavior Coaches’
Behavior Coaches’
expec, value,
beliefs, goals Coaches’
charac’istics Organization
Climate Sociocultural
Context Leader
Characteristics Member
Characteristics Performance Satisfaction Required
Behavior Actual
Behavior Preferred
Behavior Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy Information Sources of Coaching Efficacy Coaching Efficacy Dimensions Outcomes experience
prior success
perceived skill of athletes
school/community support game strategy
character building coaching behavior
player/team satisfaction
player/team performance
player/team efficacy Antecedents Leader Behavior Outcomes
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