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Leadership & Communication in Sport
Transcript of Leadership & Communication in Sport
in Sport - Part I Dr. Sean Mullen Leadership in Sport & Exercise Leadership in Exercise Contexts Situational Characteristics Leadership = "the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals” (Barrow, 1977)
-What makes for a good leader?
-What are the consequences of leadership?
Power - “the ability to influence or change the attitudes or behaviors of others.”
Power is inherent in leadership
power with (empowerment)
power over (dominance and control) What do coaches have power over?
Making the team
Amount of playing time
Attention, feedback, punishment
Types of leadership power:
Expert power - knowledge
Legitimate power - status
Referent power - respect
Reward power - access to rewards
Coercive power - access to punishments Coaches & Power Trait approach
“leaders are born, not made”
little research support, no leader “profile”
“...made, not born”
implies that anyone can be taught to be a leader
Interactional approach - leadership styles & traits with situational factors interact to determine leadership effectiveness Approaches to Studying Leadership Interactional, sport-specific model
Leadership contingent on:
Situational characteristics of leader & group
Leader characteristics (personality, experience)
Member characteristics (age, ability level)
Optimal consequences depend on congruence among leader behaviors:
Required (by context)
Preferred (by members)
Actual (what coach does) The Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership (Chelladurai, 1984, 1990) The Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership (Chelladurai, 1980) Decision-making styles – which is best?
Autocratic, Democratic, Participative
Seems that consultative style may be most preferred, although flexibility is key
Studies of John Wooden (e.g., Tharp & Gallimore, 1976)
Instruction most common behavior
Praise rarely used – but is this a good thing? Coaching & Leadership What is the role of the exercise leader?
Group Exercise Leaders
Role modeling not often discussed but may be critical for retention Preferred leadership styles?
age/competitive level/yrs experience
nationality (western v. eastern)
sport type (modern, traditional)
task type — independent v. interdependent sports Types of Research Based on MML Perceived leader behaviors & satisfaction has been linked to individual and team performance, type of leadership, team climate
higher training & instruction, + feedback, social support, democratic style, & lower autocratic greater satisfaction w/ aspects of the sport experience Research Based on MML Horn’s (2002) working model -> MML approach Athletes’
beliefs, goals Coaches’
Characteristics Performance Satisfaction Required
Behavior Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy Information Sources of Coaching Efficacy Coaching Efficacy Dimensions Outcomes experience
perceived skill of athletes
school/community support game strategy
character building coaching behavior
player/team efficacy Antecedents Leader Behavior Outcomes