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Graphic Expression and Communication
Transcript of Graphic Expression and Communication
: made of graphite and clay
Types of pencil
Soft pencils (B)
- thick lines
- for artistic drawing
Medium pencils (HB)
- Medium lines
- for technical or artistic drawing
Hard pencils (H)
- thin lines
- for technical drawing
Paper can be classified by size, weight and finish.
A0 = 1m
We use a ruler to measure the length of a segment.
We use a protractor to measure and draw angles.
We use a compass to draw circles and arcs, and to copy segments.
Set squares are triangular 'rulers' used to draw parallel and perpendicular lines.
(Escuadra y cartabón)
Tools for drawing lines
* Scale 1:1 = Full scale (escala natural)
The drawing is the same size as the real object.
The drawing is half the size of the real object.
The drawing is twice as big as the real object.
* Scales to reduce the size of drawing.
(escala de reducción)
The drawing is smaller than the object.
1:2 , 1:3 , 1:10 , 1:50.000 , ...
* Scales to enlarge the size of drawing.
(escala de ampliación)
2:1 , 3:1 , 10:1 , 100:1 , ...
The drawing is bigger than the object.
Sketches, Diagrams and Technical Drawings
It shows our first idea of the object we want to make.
It gives more information, including measurements, materials, ways of connecting pieces, etc
It has the same information as a diagram but we must use a ruler, set squares and a compass, or a computer, to give an exact picture.
Both of them are freehand with pencil.
Views of an object
Front view (alzado):
Side view (perfil):
Overhead view (planta):
this is what we see when we are in front of the object. The drawing from this view is called a
this is what we see when we look at the profile from one side of the object. The drawing from is called
this is what we see when we look down from above the object. The drawing from this view is called
How to draw plans and elevations.
Dihedral System. Perspective.
Perspective show us the whole object instead of its separate views.
Types of perspective
One-point perspective (Perspectiva caballera)
Isometric perspective (Perspectiva isométrica)
Two axis separated 90º, and the third axis at 135º to the others.
Three axis separated 120º between them.