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Transcript of Pork
is used to describe a member of the domestic pig family, Sus scrofa.
Pork is the meat produced from the domestic breeds of hog that descended from the Eurasian Wild boar- Sus Scorfa (latin).
The word pork comes from the Latin word
One of the earliest animals to be tamed, hogs were first domesticated around 6000 to o BC, in what was the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. While early nomadic herdsmen could follow grazing herds of animals, the domestication of the hog required a civilization that was stationary.
During the Roman occupation of England, pork followed beef and mutton as the favored meat.
In the Anglo-Saxon period, around 800 to 1000 AD, the pig became more of a substantial meat source.
Later, European domestic pigs were crossed with Chinese breeds, giving us many of the modern breeds we find today.
The hog is an omnivore, meaning it is relatively easy to feed and can eat a large variety of foods.
Early European explorers, such as Hernando De Soto, brought hogs with them to the New World and released these animals into the wild to allow food for settlers coming later.
Hogs were an important food source for pioneering settlers and provided food that could be preserved well beyond its traditional harvest time in the fall.
The salting and curing of pork provided a source of protein and fat for travelers, explorers, and military troops. Soldiers were often given a ration of salted pork to be boiled with other foods for added flavor.
Today, most hogs are raised on large farms where they are housed in integrated feeding barns.
Market live weight-
250 to 270 pounds
six to eight months.
When fabricating pork, be sure to cut separately from other meats. Pork, although relatively safe, is considered a danger and cross-contamination should be avoided.
These early hogs were smaller than their modern counterparts are and took about three years to mature. They were forage fed, which included nuts, roots, certain barks, and tree buds. They had longer legs that enabled them to run and escape predators, such as wolves- similar to these present day Wild Boar from Singapore.
Pork is often processed into a large variety of cured, smoked, ground and seasoned products.
Much of today's pork is lean without much marbling. This can lead to pork being too dry when overcooked. Many pork items, especially loin cuts, are sold as "enhanced" or pumped with water holding agents such as salt and sodium phosphate.
-The pork ham or back leg is the largest muscle section of the hog.
-It has four basic bones: the femur, aitch, kneecap, and a portion of the shank.
-The pork loin consists of the entire back of the hog.
-Pork rib roast
-baby back ribs
The pork loin is typically cooked using dry heat methods and is generally the highest value of the primals. When fabricated or boned, the loin yields a loin eye muscle, a tenderloin, and baby back ribs, all of which are high-value items.
The loin is sold as a primal or as a center cut. The primal has a section of sirloin on one end and a section of blade or shoulder on the other end. The center cut has those removed and is more uniform in shape. Those end pieces can be purchased separately and are generally inexpensive.
The loin can be purchased pre-cut as chops. Chops can vary in size and quality; be sure to specify exactly what chops are desired. Center cut chops are any chop that is cut from the center cut loin. Loin or porterhouse chops are cut from the loin end and would contain a piece of the tenderloin and a t-bone structure. Rib or rack chops would have the curved rib bone structure and can be Frenched. Sirloin and blade chops are cut from the end pieces and tend to be considered lesser quality.
The baby back ribs have become extremely popular in foodservice and there are a variety of specs to choose from when ordering. They are often sold by the number of ribs in the rack as well as the length of the rib. They can be purchased pre-cooked and flavored and with a large variety of marinades. Baby back ribs hold a lot of value and consistently out price even the boneless loin!
The loin is also sold as a cured item. Smoked pork loin or Kassler Ribchen would have the flavor of ham. Boneless smoked pork loin is often known as Canadian Bacon.
The front of the hog is known as the pork shoulder.
The Boston butt
-Why is it called that?
-The top section of the shoulder.
-Perfect lean to fat ratio for sausage production.
-Many muscles makes for a tough cut
The Boston butt contains a fat ratio of about seventy-percent lean to thirtypercent fat, depending on its trim spec. Much of the fat is internal, making the butt a moist and very flavorful roast, and it is typically used for slow-cooked barbecue and pulled pork. The fat-to-Iean ratio also makes it a superior choice for sausage fabrication.
-The picnic is the lower part of the shoulder.
-Used for lean ground pork.
- It can be cured and smoked as a picnic ham or cured like a prosciutto.
The belly is considered a commodity meat item and prices of pork bellies are quoted daily in the Wall Street Journal.
Pork belly is used for a large variety of culinary applications. The #1 use is bacon.
-The belly can be purchased fresh, smoked, or cured in various ways, such as salt pork or pancetta.
-Fresh belly is often slow roasted or braised and can be served as a standalone main course or as a side dish.
- Spare ribs (from the inside of the belly) can be smoked or slow roasted for barbeque.
The pork spare ribs are the rib cage that coincides with the pork belly cut.
Overall rack weight and length of the bones can be requested and processors may offer a variety of rib products. The full spare rib can be purchased without the brisket bones and trimmed to make a more uniform rib. These are often known as St. Louis Ribs and are, normally, slightly higher priced. Ribs can be purchased enhanced (marinated or basted) or even pre-cooked.
OFFAL AND MARKET ITEMS
Beyond the primals, there are other items that hold a fair amount of value. Pork fatback is the subcutaneous fat found over the loin and Boston butt area. This fat is very solid and clean and can be used for barding and larding. The leaf lard is the lumbar fat found on the inside of the carcass and is used for shortening in baking recipes.
The pork neck bones are sold fresh and smoked and used as a flavor agent.
Offal include the liver, intestines, caul fat, and kidneys. A classic use for pork liver is the French pate provencale or a country-style pate. Caul fat is used to wrap and bard other meat items. The intestines are used for sausage casings or can be sold as chitterlings.
1. Pork-basic facts
2. The five pork primals
3. Pork anatomy
4. pork butchery
Average is 72% of market live weight
Why butcher a whole hog?
Cutting boards- red
Clean metal containers set in ice
Salting the ham...
Salt- Sodium chloride - NaCl
Root word- Sal (latin)
What Happens now...
Weight of ham x .06 = Amount of salt
Osmosis- A process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.