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MIND MAP

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Samantha Post

on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of MIND MAP

MIND MAP
A traveling description of MU 286 class, Music Education Practicum class. This will detail every topic covered in the class.
By: Samantha Post
Musician and Teacher
This topic was focused on defining the similarities and differences between a musician and a teacher. The first chapter of Campbell's novel was the reading for the topic. Campbell used examples of students who were a stronger musician or a stronger teacher and explained their value in music education. A musician is not necessarily immediately a teacher, nor is a teacher automatically a musician because they play or sing music. To become a teacher, one must be able to draw out specific skills in students to help them succeed. A musician performs music, understands music, and is deeply connected to music.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
In regards to my teaching philosophy that states that music advances one's understanding of emotion, life and life experiences, this definition means that anyone can undergo musical epiphanies for comprehending life, but not everyone can give that experience to others as a musician. Nor can anyone become a teacher, although some can draw out knowledge within others; a teacher must draw out extremely specific and detailed knowledge for student success and lead life understanding by music, through example in correspondence with my philosophy.
Through a pedagogical standpoint, discussing the similarities and differences between a musician and a teacher can be taught to students so they can understand how music education teachers must have personas. As a future music educator, I will teach these definitions with student discussions so students can comprehend the personas I utilize. I believe both my skills as a teacher and musician are strong, but in terms of level of accomplishment, I think my teaching is a little stronger so I will use that side more as a music educator and it will benefit student success and myself more. However, I will always strive to be the best of both for my students.
Questions and Resources
1. Do people learn how to teach or is it a natural talent that one must be born with?
2. Is musician more teachable or mostly stem from natural talent?
3. Is having more musical skills or more teaching skills most beneficial to students?
Patricia Shehan Campbell, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 1-15.
Music Teacher. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13, 2014, from https://www.sokanu.com/careers/music-teacher/
Shankman, N. (2014, October 5). Essential Characteristics for a Music Teacher. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from http://www.artistshousemusic.org/videos/essential characteristics for a music teacher
Beliefs
This topic was discussing what our own beliefs are and how beliefs can affect student and teacher success. A reading from Thompson was used as a framing and scaffolding tool for the topic. Everyone has something that Thompson likes to call a belief system. It is a compilation of all the beliefs that one has. They control and influence behavior and actions and therefore will influence interactions, students and student success. One must also be careful about offending the communities beliefs and those of the school as well. Thompson thought that belief systems can change in extreme situations, but other than that, she did not think those systems would be change because of how firmly engrained some are in some people. No change in beliefs and can affect reflection and evaluation. When presented with certain details of music education, some belief systems will reject it if it does not agree. A good belief system is one that is open and willing to change. A definition of belief is held as truth by the one holding the belief and does not require external validation or evidence of truth.
Patricia Shehan Campbell, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 1-15.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
My philosophy does not discuss beliefs or belief systems, however, what students receive music is a personal experience and creates a specific belief on that music. So everyone's beliefs on music are different but some qualities should be similar based on the universal application of music and aspects such as major and minor tonalities. Any philosophy is just a large belief about music education and follows the definition of belief. My philosophy will influence my students and classes in the future, but in the direction of positive success because I am open-minded and willing to change or repress my beliefs for my students' success.
Beliefs can hinder learning, especially if a belief disagrees with the topic being taught, the student can reject it and therefore not move forward in educational success. Having different belief systems about learning and teaching between students and teacher can also hinder educational success. When examining beliefs, one must have the fortitude to know what you know, and the determination to consider, develop, and adopt alternatives. As a teacher, I want to put the students' beliefs about the way that they learn first so they all receive a successful education, and in addition I will provide and encourage opportunities to reflect, evaluate and change their beliefs to be more open-minded.
Questions and Resources
1. At what age do students have their own beliefs?
2. At what age(s) can we expect students to productively reflect and change their beliefs?
3. To what extent do the beliefs of the school and community affect the beliefs of the students and teachers?
Linda K. Thompson. “Considering Beliefs in Learning to Teach Music.” Music Educators Journal Vol. 93, No. 3 (2007): 30-35. Accessed January 21, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4101536.
Nespor, J. (1987). The Role of Beliefs in the Practice of Teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19(4), 317-328.
Johnson, D. E. (Director) (2014, August 28). Teacher identity and development. MU 286 Class. Lecture conducted from Colorado State University Music Department, Fort Collins.
Teacher Identity
This topic arrived in stream with the discussion on beliefs. To evaluate and reflect upon oneself was the main point of the lessons. An autobiography describing one's musician journey and one's thoughts on music was very useful in reflecting on personal teacher identity. Including an interview with an important music teacher to oneself was reflective and insightful on how it might be like to be a music educator and how they have influenced you. Finding and discovering one's teacher identity will help decisions on how to become the successful teacher one wishes to be.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
The relation between teacher identity and my personal philosophy is because music is a pathway to understand emotion, life and life experiences, that personal identity influences the emotions and life experiences that one has. Their identity dictates what emotions they have towards certain ideas and therefore controls the way that the music affects them. In my philosophy, I believe teachers should show students their expectations by embodying them, leading by example. So teacher identity is important in that it is what student success in the program should look like.
In pedagogy, teacher identity can potentially have conflict because of the school, parents and community. Teachers must educate their students and some students may not like my teacher identity. Parents and the school may also not like my teacher identity because of differences and differences in beliefs. However, teacher identity is very specific and personal, but I wish only for my students to succeed and lead by example of what I think their success should look like. Providing my students an insight into my background and who I am as a teacher will make them aware of my teacher identity. I will use my teacher identity always when I teach to ensure that I do not include personal life in the classroom.
Questions and Resources
1. Do teacher identities influence their role and identity as a musician?
2. Is there conflict in the community about teacher identities?
3. How do beliefs impact teacher identity?
Johnson, D. E. (Director) (2014, August 28). Teacher identity and development. MU 286 Class. Lecture conducted from Colorado State University Music Department, Fort Collins.
Zembylas, M. (2003), INTERROGATING “TEACHER IDENTITY”: EMOTION, RESISTANCE, AND SELF-FORMATION. Educational Theory, 53: 107–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2003.00107.x
Zembylas, M. (2002), “STRUCTURES OF FEELING” IN CURRICULUM AND TEACHING: THEORIZING THE EMOTIONAL RULES. Educational Theory, 52: 187–208. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2002.00187.x
Linda K. Thompson. “Considering Beliefs in Learning to Teach Music.” Music Educators Journal Vol. 93, No. 3 (2007): 30-35. Accessed January 21, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4101536.
Music Education History
This topic was focusing on where music education comes from and how it has been defended since the time of Plato. Music has been present in humanity from as far back as we have record, and therefore music education that goes with music is also a large and deep vein of our history. The topic covered many philosophers thoughts on music education such as Plato, Aristotle, Quintilian, Charlemagne, Harrison, Luther, Calvin, and Pestalozzi. Each had their own ideas about music and music education. One of the major consensus was that music and music education is very important to humanity; it was in why it was important and its application where their opinions differed. Plato believed music education to better the individual, Aristotle thought music for music's sake, Quintilian said that music is from the inside out, Charlemagne believed music should be used for religion and prayer as a path to god and religious understanding, Harrison thought that music is a tool for religious conversion, Luther said that music should be used to pray, practice music for the people's sake, and religion to open and music as a pathway to it, Pestalozzi began the system and reasons for music education that dominates American society today by dictating that music should be for a moral education.
After going over where music education comes from, definitions of relevant words were covered to solidify exactly what encompasses music education. Art is described as that in which we can perceive a reflection of ourselves; our humanity. Music is the combination of sounds and silences that are culturally defined and arouse our senses, and help us understand emotion, life and life experiences. Feeling is the child of emotion; feelings are emotions that reach a state of consciousness that interact with our memories of past experiences to form cognitive action, and motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic; internal or external. A teacher inspires and cultivates expertise in a student in ways that enable their growth, their ability to meet their own needs, the needs of others, and the needs of society. Finally, education means to draw out the necessary skills and tools for success from the students.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Music education history is very important to my philosophy and especially when I was developing my philosophy because these ideas help shape my own about why should I teach music education. I agree that music should be for music's sake, but I also believe that it betters the person, society, and provides moral education. However, my philosophy mainly orients towards music to understand emotion, life and life experiences. The definitions of words relevant to music education also shaped my philosophy; a teacher inspiring and cultivating students to grow on their own relates to leading by example.
In regards to a pedagogical standpoint, music education history should be communicated to the students so they understand why they receive the opportunity to learn what they are learning. I would also teach the students about these definitions such as of art and music so students can apply that knowledge outside the classroom and have the resources to defend music study for themselves. This history is why I can teach and how I have the opportunity to do so, plus it shows how important this type of education is. It is music education pedagogy defense and why it exists.
Questions and Resources
1. After Pestalozzi, what does the history of music education look like?
2. Do differing opinions of why music is not important exist and what do they utilize as arguments?
3. How does music and music education in terms of importance and application in humanity?
Michael L. Mark. Music Education: Source Readings from Ancient Greece to Today. (New York: Routledge, 2002), 5-19, 27-28, 31-34, 38-41.
Johnson, D. E. (Director) (2014, September 2). History of Music Education. MU 286 Class. Lecture conducted from Colorado State University Music Department, Fort Collins.
Johnson, D. E. (Director) (2014, September 2). History of Music Education. MU 286 Class. Lecture conducted from Colorado State University Music Department, Fort Collins.
Michael L. Mark. Music Education: Source Readings from Ancient Greece to Today. (New York: Routledge, 2002), 5-19, 27-28, 31-34, 38-41.
McPherson, G., & Welch, G. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of music education (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.
Observing and Analyzing Teaching Behavior
This topic was on the subject of regarding teachers. This was in part preparation of the field experience of the Practicum. Students were assigned to observe their own teachers and make notes of how they communicated information to the class and what strategies they used to draw out student comprehension and success. Campbell discussed this topic with the field of music education; the place to learn technique, apply theories and understanding of what works and what does not. This class section also stressed the importance of documentation through journals, observations, and interviews. Observing musicianship, pedagogical knowledge, a good rapport with students, good communication style, a working delivery system, professionalism, and classroom management were qualities and behaviors that teachers should have and were supposed to be observed. These observations were to encourage critical thinking about how to teach and what strategies can be used and what works best. Those strategies were complied into a Teaching Repertoire for reference on what is the best way to teach this topic and ensure student understanding.
Patricia Shehan Campbell, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 276-298.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
To observe and analyze teaching behavior is strongly related to my philosophy because of my idea that the teacher's role is to lead by example. So students are constantly observing teacher behavior in my philosophy. Having all those good qualities and strategies are included in the teacher's role because those are vital to drawing out student success in the most effective and most beneficial way possible.
Observing and analyzing teaching behavior goes along with pedagogy because it is watching the pedagogy of the teacher. I plan to have those qualities of strategies, musicianship, good rapport and communication with students, delivery system, professionalism, and classroom management to give my students the best chance of success. If they observe my good behaviors and apply them to themselves, they can achieve self-teaching.
Questions and Resources
1. Do students observe and analyze teacher behaviors in a general setting? If yes, how often and what is its impact on student learning?
2. What consists of pedagogical knowledge aside from teaching strategies and learning theories?
3. Where is the balance of the qualities and strategies of a teacher most effective to student success?
Brown, S. (1993). Observing teaching (Vol. 79). Birmingham: SEDA.
Evertson, C., & Weade, G. (1991). On what can be learned by observing teaching. In Theory Into Practice (1st ed., Vol. 30, pp. 37-45). Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
Campell, Patricia Shehan, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 276-298.
An Effective Teacher
This topic focused on exactly what qualities in what quantities made a teacher the most effective in drawing out student success. To begin and frame the topic, students completed a self-assessment and personal goals that focused on what qualities make a good teacher, how one will get those qualities, what personal issues hinder their teaching, what positive and helpful qualities for teaching one already has, and what one plans to do to get those qualities of a good teacher and why they are important to have. A reading that went along with this topic discussed aspects of an effective teacher, such as a certain gut feeling that guides them to lead their students to success, and theatrical flair because teaching behavior, identity, and persona is somewhat of a role that one must take on.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
In regards to my philosophy which defines the teacher role as one who leads by example, an effective teacher would be one who does everything that they want their students to do so they will follow in their actions and behaviors. They must have a depth of musical understanding and show that understanding to the students to be effective. The teacher draws out in students the abilities the students have in themselves by revealing the expectations the teacher has within their own self. The example or role of the teacher must be truthful and have merit but contain more than what the person actually is; the theatrical flair.
I will undertake this cloak of the teacher and its persona to teach my students and show them exactly what I want them to achieve in the way that I run my life. The pedagogy of being an effective means enlisting teaching strategies, good communication and relationships, strong classroom management, planned out lessons, structured curriculum and many more of the qualities mentioned. Effective learning is characterized by someone who is obsessed with learning and learning about learning. A great teacher sees potential in every student can draw out the best in every student, introduce individuals to new knowledge; tools, and enables individual to develop their own capacities.
Questions and Resources
1. What balance of theatrical flair is most effective toward student success?
2. Is a gut feeling about teaching something inherent or can it be taught and acquired through instruction and how does it affect the success of a teacher?
3. To what extent and what depth should the rapport between teachers and students exist?
Brand, Manny. “Master Music Teachers: What Makes Them Great?”. Music Educators Journal Special Focus: The Making of a Master Music Teacher (1990) Vol. 77, No. 2: 22-25. Accessed September 10, 2014. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0027-4321%28199010%2977%3A2%3C22%3AMMTWMT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y.
Stronge, J. (2007). Qualities of effective teachers (2nd ed.). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Nussbaum, J. (1992). Effective Teacher Behaviors. In Communication Education (2nd ed., Vol. 41, pp. 167-180). Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
Planning Instruction
This topic discussed and reviewed how to effectively plan out a class, lesson, rehearsal, et cetera. It begins by asking: where are we going, how do we get there, and when do we know we have arrived. For a lesson plan, there are certain sections that should be covered to achieve a complete teaching cycle, whole-part-whole, and student success in the form of improvement: setting, rationale, standards, objectives, materials, anticipatory set, activities/procedures, assessment, and closure. However, these sections should be completed in a specific order. Starting with objectives which should have "students will be able to..." and be clear, concise, focused, observable, measurable, placed in context, then create and complete the assessment part of the lesson.
There are three scopes of assessment, informal, formal classroom, and large scale, like testing which is a tool that assesses outcome. They measure, or assign labels to outcomes, and assess, which includes procedures used to gain information of student learning as indicated by instructional and curricular objectives. An evaluation interprets the results. An assessment is used for placement, diagnostics, formation, and summation. Written or performance are utilized to assess musical achievement. There are five formats of music assessment: portfolios, performance, authentic, embedded, and alternative which have grading system that function as perfection or criterion, norm or peer, and progress or self, and contain multi-dimensional grade reports based off a grading policy and rubrics. There are three main types of assessment: diagnostic, formative which can be self or peer, and summative.

After assessment, one writes the procedures and activities that contain teaching strategies to teach the students the lesson with engage, frame, elaborate, acquire, and memory strengthening. Then comes the anticipatory set which demonstrates what the students will be able to do, and the closure. The last four elements of a planning a lesson are the materials, setting, rationale, and standards. The standards are levels and objectives for music students to reach. The National Standards are: Singing, performing, improvising, composing, reading and notating music, listening to and analyzing and describing music, evaluating music , understanding relationship between music and the other arts and subjects outside the arts, and finally understanding music in relation to history and culture. The Colorado Standards are the expression, creation, theory and aesthetic valuation of music, then there are Common Core Standards that are creating, performing, responding, and connecting.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Planning Instruction relates somewhat to my philosophy because it discusses how a teacher should always be prepared for their students an the lessons. The preparation is crucial to the success of individual lesson plans and rehearsal dates, because thinking through the lesson and being completely prepared prevents an instance where the teacher improvises the entire lesson and therefore does not get all the information across to the students needed for improvement and complete comprehension. I believe that preparation is the key as a teacher to reaching students to the levels of the Standards and assessment as part of instructional planning is huge in the way of assessing student success and teacher success in their methods. Planning instruction encourages students to plan out their methods of breaking down music and learn it better.
I will use the structures within planning instruction when I teach; always when I become a teacher. Planning it out helps me think through what I believe they should know and how I should convey the topics and details across to them in a manner that they understand and can utilize later on. It also sets teachers ahead of potential problems and student issues, if they thought about every possible struggle within the lesson and wrote out a way to counter it.
Questions and Resources
1. How much value does assessment have for the student and student learning?
2. To what extent of detail should the procedures be written?
3. What, if any, negatives exist to fully planning out instruction?
Algozzine, R., & Campbell, P. (2009). Chapter 1: Decide what to Teach. In 63 tactics for teaching diverse learners, grades 6-12. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.
Mark, Michael L., Patrice Madura. Music Education in Your Hands: An Introduction for Future Teachers. New York: Routledge, 2010. Accessed September 14, 2014. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjc3VtdTI4NnxneDozNzIzMGI4Y2U1ZjZjZmFm.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 60-85.
Lehman, Paul. “A Vision for the Future: Looking at the Standards”. Music Educator’s Journal Vol. 94, No. 4 (2008): 28-32. Accessed September 29, 2014. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30219683.
Lehman, Paul. “Grading Practices in Music”. Music Educator’s Journal Vol. 84, No. 5 (1998): 37-40. Accessed October 1, 2014. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3399129.
Peer Teaching
This topic was about gaining confidence as a teacher and getting the chance to practice teaching in front of and to one's peers. Students choose from a small list of subjects to teach for their lesson; subjects that were very easy to the entire class. After discussing how to plan instruction, students wrote a lesson plan, got feedback from the professor, and then wrote a final lesson plan plus a rubric to assess their students', or peers, skills. Then each student presented and taught their lesson to the class and received feedback from peers and the professor. The purpose of this topic was preparation and experience in teaching and in writing a lesson plan that will work well in the field. It also provided more opportunity to observe and analyze the teaching behaviors and strategies used by the peers. It built confidence in lesson plans and teaching so students would be prepared for the Practicum experience.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Peer teaching does relate to many parts of my philosophy, but it actually encourages the roles of the student and teacher. As both roles, I was able to follow my philosophy and lead by example as the teacher, learn from other students teaching some techniques and strategies, and be engaged in flow and bonding with peers as fellow students and teachers. The subjects involved in the peer teaching were not very much in depth, which explains why the experience does not relate to music as the pathway to understanding emotions and life. It follows more of the lines of understanding my teaching behaviors and my teaching identity.
I used this experience and relied on it when I went to the Practicum experience out in the field. I referenced it for how to write a proper lesson plan and how it might feel in front of the students. As it was my first encounter with writing a lesson plan, it will be credited as the beginning of many that I must utilize in my teaching career to give students the highest possibility of success.
Questions and Resources
1. Is peer teaching a valid preparation and comparison to field teaching?
2. To what extent was it useful when completing the Practicum?
3. What skills and advantages does peer teaching bring about?
Boud, D. (2001). Introduction: Making the move to peer learning. In Peer learning in higher education: Learning from & with each other. London: Kogan Page.
Cruickshank, D., & Applegate, J. (1981). Reflective Teaching as a Strategy for Teacher Growth. Educational Leadership, 38(7), 553-554. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from eric.ed.gov
Goldschmid, B., & Goldschmid, M. (1976). Peer teaching in higher education: A review (1st ed., Vol. 5, pp. 9-33). Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic.
Practicum
This section of the class was a five-week experience where students were able to go out into the local schools. They began by observing the teachers at the schools for three sessions, proceeded by two final sessions with individual sectionals. Every student was paired with another for this experience, and they each taught a sectional to their own instrument in a removed setting from the normal classroom. The first three sessions had separate reflections for each, discussing what the teacher's classroom actions and procedures were and how effective the teacher was towards their goals. Then the student teachers wrote a lesson plan for their fourth session, evaluating each others' with formative peer assessment. After completing and reflecting on paper the first sectional, students were to write their second and final sectional lesson plan. This one was recorded and graded, and also required a self-reflection. The purpose was to get real, solid, out in the field experience for music education.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
This experience was vital to developing my philosophy because it provided all the personal background knowledge on the importance of music education and a reference to how teachers can hear the aesthetic valuation of music education. It also provided insight to the roles of the students and teachers that I believe are the most successful and what I used in my philosophy. I think that in relation to my philosophy, this experience was important in understanding what I will expect of my students in the future and what expectations I have of myself as a teacher.
I plan to live up to the qualities set by my philosophy by watching myself teach as much as possible so I can reflect, assess, and evaluate myself, plan and prepare through planning instruction and have the correct teacher identity that draws out the motivation in students to become musicians. This experience showed me how important planning is and how much it can encourage success, with the addition of how good communication in lessons and a good rapport with students aids student improvement and success.
Questions and Resources
1. To what extent do Practicum experiences help class understanding?
2. Are Practicum experiences valid applications and preparations to the job?
3. What other advantages or disadvantages do Practicum experiences contain?
Paul, S., Teachout, D., Sullivan, J., Kelly, S., Bauer, W., & Raiber, M. (n.d.). Authentic-Context Learning Activities in Instrumental Music Teacher Education. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49(2), 136-145.
Campbell, M., & Thompson, L. (2007). Perceived Concerns of Preservice Music Education Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55(2), 162-176.
Temmerman, N. (1997). An investigation of undergraduate music education curriculum content in primary teacher education programmes in Australia. International Journal of Music Education, Os-30(1), 26-34.
Classroom Management
This topic was on how to control the classroom. Expectations, discipline, and rules were main focuses. Classroom Management is mostly the idea of how to keep the classroom running smoothly, efficient, and keeping students engaged. Effective management strategy includes proactivity, preparing materials and literature. Discipline affects classroom management. A quick instructional pace with a clear time line, goals and objectives, good verbal and nonverbal communication can aid discipline and keeps classroom management. Positive feedback, verbal or nonverbal encourages good behavior and better performance. Searching for papers and music contributes to distraction among the students and can cause them to get out of focus. Different communication styles can emphasize focus and attention to the teacher, while also reducing distractions that can cause discipline problems that can be solved by using the redirect process and mutual respect. Good classroom management maximizes learning and teaches students responsibility and self-control. Use strategy time and self-reflection to improve classroom management.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Classroom Management in regards to my philosophy would translate to performing and demonstrating how I want the students to behave and having them follow my example. However, it is also written that students should grow and mature through music, and therefore develop better behavioral qualities. The teacher should control the classroom by showing the students how to act. As the teacher always leads by example, the students will naturally tune in their behavior, when it is acceptable to joke and have a little more fun and when it is time to focus and improve.
Students who are engaged mentally, physically, and emotionally will most likely not cause discipline problems and having those qualities will also make the classroom more effective and productive. As a teacher, I will strive to have my students feel all these qualities to discourage distractions and show the students how to act professionally at all times. Another way I will discourage negative behavior will be a set of rules and expectation of the classroom so students are aware what their role is, and a set procedure for discipline so students understand the consequences; being proactive rather than reactive. I will utilize games and fun activities to encourage focus, balancing fun and hard work with high energy levels. As a teacher, showing care about student needs and concerns is a big part of respect and classroom management. A few additional qualities that are necessary are: dedicated, energetic, enthused, fair, firm, consistent, knowing student names, proud of students, and extensive knowledge of subjects.
Questions and Resources
1. What is the best way to deal with distractions and problems between students?
2. How does discipline affect the mood, tone, and focus of the classroom?
3. Are there other important forms of classroom management besides discipline, preparation, and instructional pacing?
Education World: Classroom Management. (n.d.). Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/archives/classroom_management.shtml
Shores, R. (1993). Classroom Management Strategies: Are They Setting Events for Coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18(2), 92-102.
Clunies‐Ross, P., Little, E., & Kienhuis, M. (2008). Self‐reported and actual use of proactive and reactive classroom management strategies and their relationship with teacher stress and student behaviour. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 28(6), 693-710.
Philosophy
This topic was on teaching philosophies. For review, students were to re-read the Music Education History readings and refresh their minds on what other famous philosophers have said in regards to music education. This class went towards developing a teaching philosophy that defends music education and describes the roles of student and teacher. In essence, what is it about this work that really matters. Philosophy is defined as the reason why we do what we do; loving wisdom, a vision, a set of guiding principles. Aesthetic education was discussed; how music has meaning with the world around it. Music education teaching philosophies should include praxialism, the act(s) of doing, music as a verb. The spheres of musical validity describe music as a social practice with globalization and balance. Philosophy was how to defend the program when people fight against it and how to continue music education with a purpose in the future.
Bauer, William I. “Classroom Management for Ensembles”. Music Educator’s Journal Vol. 87, No. 6 (2001): 27-32. Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3399689.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
This is the class where we outlined our philosophies. In short, my personal teaching philosophy includes what is meaningful and aesthetically valuable for music education, what is the role of the student, and what is the role of the teacher. I believe that music education is meaningful because it helps students understand emotional responses of life and life experiences and show students that music can be their own and a sanctuary of peace and something larger than themselves. Music is an instant and moving response, and has a wide and varied response to everyone and everything. I then outlined my roles for the students. they should grow in maturity and moral eduction through music and feel a connection to the music, to everything outside music, and music to everything outside of it. Using those connections between music and areas outside music, students should apply their musical skills outside school like for philanthropy projects. As stated before, the teacher should lead by example and therefore do everything that the student is expected to do.
In regards to a pedagogical standpoint, philosophy is important as the intrinsic motivation for teaching music and giving others the intrinsic motivation to make music. I will follow my philosophy as closely as possible when teaching because I believe those are the most effective roles of student and teacher and I also truly believe music helps humans understand all life.
Questions and Resources
1. Are there philosophies that surround the National and State standards for music education?
2. Do beliefs and belief systems affect teaching philosophies?
3. Is the praxial or aesthetic aspect of music education philosophy more important?
Reimer, Bennett. Philosophy of Music Education: From Philosophy Concurrence to Diversity Problems and Opportunities. Third Edition, (October, 2003), pp. 1-37.
Langer, Susanne K. Problems of Art. “Expressiveness”. (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962), pp. 13-26.
Hodges, Donald A. Why study music? International Journal of Music Education, Vol. 23, No. 2 (2005): 111-115. Accessed November 10, 2014. Sage Publications LTD: http://ijm.sagepub.com/.
McPherson, G., & Welch, G. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of music education (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.
Choral Music
This was a guest lecture by another professor, a choral director. He discussed how choral classrooms might differ from music classrooms. One of the main points was a vocal warm-up sequence should be first mental exercise, then to posture and alignment, breathing, range extension, and finally tone and resonance. The order is this way as to not strain voices, and warm-up vocal folds by exercising them more as the teacher goes along. Another difference from instrumentalist classroom is the repertoire choices which need to be chosen based on ranges of each part and the tessitura plus the rhythms and melodies and harmonies. The teacher must understand student voices and development, especially for middle school choirs. Choral music is just as difficult as instrumental and actually follow most of the same music education aspects and processes.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
While choral music is not specifically mentioned in my philosophy, it still applies to choral teaching. Music is music, whether it comes from the throat or an instrument. The only section of my philosophy that has conflict and or affects choral teaching is the teacher's role because I am not a singer; I am an instrumentalist. Teaching solely a choral class would impact my philosophy by changing the teacher's role slightly, and potentially the students' roles. It seems that classroom management is harder in choral classrooms because they stand next to their friends and do not take the class seriously. My goal would be to emphasize the purpose and meaning of music to them so they find deeper meanings and connections.
In pedagogy aspect, as I am leading by example, and singing is not my strong point, my example may come from the piano more often. I will still portray the classroom management, behavioral, and as much musical aspects as I can, especially the meanings of the music. I may not be utilizing the demonstrating anticipatory set as much as I would in an instrumental class, but I will still sing if need be for students and not use the piano so they can learn how to sing alone.
Questions and Resources
1. Do choral and instrumental classrooms make the same amount of progress or improvement?
2. To what extent can choirs apply their musical skills outside the classroom?
3. How different must rehearsals and the manner in which the choir rehearses from instrumental rehearsals?
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 145-163.
Davis, A. (1998). Performance Achievement and Analysis of Teaching during Choral Rehearsals. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46(4), 496-509.
Barrett, J. (2007). The researcher as instrument: Learning to conduct qualitative research through analyzing and interpreting a choral rehearsal. Music Education Research, 9(3), 417-433.
Brendell, J. (1996). Time Use, Rehearsal Activity, and Student Off-Task Behavior during the Initial Minutes of High School Choral Rehearsals. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44(1), 6-14.
Technology
This topic was also a guest lecture by the Teacher Assistant. It was about technology in music and how to apply it without overusing and without distracting students. We discussed different applications such as: SmartMusic, Class Dojo, Tonal Energy, Graphs Sound Wave, TooLoud, ForScore, and Plicker, that all have direct musical applications. SmartMusic is made for music learning specifically, and is used often for tests and practice sessions. Dojo works well for classroom management with the ability to assign good and bad behavior qualities to students. Technology is a great tool for music classes, and should be utilized to achieve the standards. One must be careful not to spend too much time on the technology because it could take away from teacher preparation, class time, and eventually hinder the students' musical skills because they are spending too much time with the technology. Unless it really is an application that is not distracting, merely engaging, and furthers their musical skills, it should not be in the classroom. The teacher must find a balance with technology.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
In the context of my philosophy, technology is not mentioned. However, it can be used, I just do not think it furthers my philosophy of music guiding the understanding of emotions, life and life experiences. I am not sure if students can achieve that through technology. I think technology can aid musical progress and help students improve, which could lead to musical understanding and onto the pathway of my philosophy. I do not think it can replace music or give the same feelings or educational benefits when one performs music, as compared to a purely electronic instrument.
In my classrooms, I will have technology, perhaps many of these applications, but I will encourage playing with the SmartMusic and discourage learning piano from an iPad rather than a kinesthetic experience of a keyboard or piano. My technology use will never take up more time than musical topics and must be beneficial to the curriculum, philosophy, and purpose of music education.
Questions and Resources
1. To what extent is technology distracting?
2. Can technology provide a moral education and an emotional education through electronic music?
3. Is technology a valid and accurate to asses students on musical ability such as recorded playing tests or SmartMusic?
Beckstead, D. (2001). Will Technology Transform Music Education? Music Educators Journal, 87(6), 44-49.
Comber, C., Hargreaves, D., & Colley, A. (1993). Girls, Boys and Technology in Music Education. British Journal Of Music Education, 10(2), 123-134.
Rudolph, T. (Ed.). (2005). Technology strategies for music education (2nd ed.). Wyncote, PA: Technology Institute for Music Educators.
Curriculum
This topic was about the curriculum involved in music education and what it takes to write one. A curriculum is a framework that helps educators organize and sequence concepts, objectives and materials that they want students to learn. A daily curriculum is a lesson plan and all curriculum has philosophy. The standards are the pillars of what one teaches, the scope and sequence of curriculum is how will one teach them, and benchmarks are ways to show progress and what will students achieve. A certain curriculum called spiral curriculum is an upward spiral of teaching cycles of ideas that connects to concepts and assessments with overlapping individual teaching cycles over the spiral. A curriculum basic requirements is the program philosophy, overall program goals, list of benchmarks, required resources, teaching strategies, assessment strategies, and materials.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
The curriculum always has a corresponding and matching philosophy. With my philosophy as it is, I think I could write a curriculum, in addition including the standards. I would not change my philosophy to write a curriculum because curriculum is the ideas and concepts and the order they arrive in within a program that the teacher wants them to learn. The philosophy is what we want the students to achieve, what they will be able to do similar to an objective, and the curriculum is how do we get the students to achieve that, how do we get there similar to procedures. My philosophy has praxial, formalist, and referentialist qualities that affect what I can put in the curriculum as student actions.
In the context of pedagogy, I will most likely have to write a curriculum at some point. I will utilize the ideas in my philosophy and come up with actions that would lead to the levels of the standards, musical understanding, and deep emotion, life and life experience comprehension from music. The qualities of my philosophy require that the students are doing, learning by forms and more traditional ways of teaching music, and also referencing their applications and connections with music outside the classroom. With the similarities to instructional planning, I will treat it as such when I have to write a curriculum and it should function as a way for the students to reach the standards and my own expectations.
Questions and Resources
1. What concepts are vital to a curriculum? The National and State Standards?
2. What does a curriculum define and or change in the classroom?
3. How do grade-levels alter the formation of curriculum?
Conway, Colleen. “Curriculum Writing in Music”. Music Educator’s Journal Vol. 88, No. 6 (2002): 54-59. Accessed January 21, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3399806.
Elliott, D. J. (1995). Music matters: A new philosophy of music education (Vol. 14). New York: Oxford university press.
Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1994). Foundations of music education. New York: Schirmer Books.
Diversity
Diversity is how different a given group is. It can be by many qualities such as: race, gender, ethnicity, wealth and others. None of these should ever play a factor in any aspect of the classroom aside from celebrating every culture to keep equality. There are some problems in that students can be denied equal opportunity and how student success in education can be limited by the way that students are sorted, testing, socialization, the type of school and school choice, and societal demographics. Diversity within the music classroom affects every aspect of music education and student success. All students are different and they all learn differently, coming from every imaginable background. Therefore, all teachers need to be prepared and reach every student, every background, multiple musical culture and ethnicity studies, and provide all students with musical success. However, real-life application may be much more difficult than it sounds. Some teachers may have difficulties making every student enjoy, feel welcome, represented, and valued within the classroom and teach the curriculum needed and required by the standards. One must wonder whether or not the success of one student that is behind or ahead of the others is worth the potential loss of success from the average students; therefore, the unanswered question of where and what teachers spend their time on is raised once more.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Diversity is not mentioned in my philosophy, but it is considered. Diversity exists all over the United States and in thousands of schools and music classrooms all over. However, this would not change my philosophy, because it takes music as an all-encompassing sentient being that includes all forms of music and all ways of music. Music does not exclude anyone or any culture and neither will I. Diversity will have the same philosophy and the application outside the classroom will be aimed at all the communities that the students are a part of. My philosophy is all inclusive.
In my teaching, I will be fair and apply no bias based on any differentiating factor, aside from the actual musical skills, which is all I should be grading. I will do my best to give every student the same opportunities inside and outside the classroom, and blind auditions and playing tests will ensure no bias or discriminating factors are in order. When grading written assignments, I will grade only by rubrics. I support the diversity and my classroom will not contain any inequality.
Questions and Resources
Learning Theories
Learning Theories describe how people learn. There are three major schools of psychology: behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist. The behavioral school was the late 19th century and early 20th century, with William James, and Ivan Pavlov. The cognitive school was the mid-20th century, with Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Howard Gardener, and Benjamin Bloom. The constructivist was the mid to late 20th century with Lev Vygotsky. These are all humanist psychology, optimal flourish environment, feeling, and positive psychology. B.F. Skinner was the behavioral school with external shapes and behaviors, antecedents, consequences, reinforcement and reward praise. Piaget thought biological maturation was the key to how humans learn, with activities, social experiences,, cognition conflict or equilibration. The stages were sensory, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Vygotsky believed in sociocultural development, the activity theory, mediation, signs, symbols, tools, the zone of proximal development, and theory assisted performance. All learning theories help the process of teaching, teachers show and explain how to get the tools, and once the students have the tools, they can teach themselves.
Application to Philosophy and Pedagogy
Learning theories were very important when I was writing my philosophy statement because i used them to describe the roles of students and teacher. Learning theories will be included in every lesson plan, curriculum and they are part of the philosophy in that the teacher leads by example, and the student follows it for classroom management, so that strategy would be a behavioral psychology of imitation.
In a pedagogical standpoint, these learning theories help identify which one the classes are closer to so I can adapt my style to better fit them. It would also reveal to me how to help a struggling students who does not understand it in the normal context or phrasing. It also shows how students learn and therefore gives insight on how to draw out that learning. I will show them the tools to learn, and after that, they can teach themselves on their own.
1. How does diversity affect classroom mood and behaviors between students?
2. Is it possible to treat all students equally?
3. How students react to diversity and equality in an environment that was previously without it?
Questions and Resources
1. Do learning theories have merit and scientific fact?
2. To what extent do learning theories affect teaching and learning in a classroom?
3. How do learning theories affect the music education community?
Drummond, J. (2005). Cultural diversity in music education: why bother?. Cultural diversity in music education, 1.
Anderson, W. M., & Campbell, P. S. (Eds.). (2011). Multicultural perspectives in music education (Vol. 3). R&L Education.
Schippers, H. (1996). Teaching world music in the Netherlands: Towards a model for cultural diversity in music education. International Journal of Music Education, (1), 16-23.
Mark, M., & Madura, P. (2013). Contemporary music education. Cengage Learning.
Burnard, P. (2000). How children ascribe meaning to improvisation and composition: rethinking pedagogy in music education. Music education research, 2(1), 7-23.
Schunk, D. H. (1996). Learning theories. Printice Hall Inc., New Jersey.
“The School Music Program: A New Vision.” MENC – The National Association of Music Education – Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
Kelly, S. N. (2009). Teaching music in American society: A social and cultural understanding of teaching music. p 71-99. New York: Routledge.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 214-234.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, Steven M. Demorest and Steven J. Morrison. Musician and Teacher: An Orientation to Music Education. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2008), 104-124.
Kelly, S. N. (2009). Teaching music in American society: A social and cultural understanding of teaching music. p 71-99. New York: Routledge.
Beliefs are connected to teacher identity because one's belief systems influence teacher identity. The beliefs must be open to reflection and change to create a teacher identity that draws out student skills and student success.
The history of Music Education is connected to beliefs because those ancient philosophies were based on their own belief systems and beliefs can also be based on history and past personal experiences.
Musician and Teacher definitions connect with teacher identity in that a teaching identity must include both definitions and roles.
An effective teacher knows their teacher identity and it must be effective to the students in drawing out their success. An effective teacher uses their teacher identity to lead by example.
An effective teacher has a belief system but is always open to reflection and change of their ideas for the better.
A teacher identity is based and formed off of ideas, beliefs, and the past historical ideas of music educators.
An effective teacher is connected to observing and analyzing teaching behavior through the behaviors of an effective teacher that include musical knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, extensive teaching strategies, and more.
An effective teacher is connected to planning instruction because great teachers always use and prepare for lessons and every possibility to happen.
An effective teacher has good classroom management and keeps control, rules, disciplines, communication, and high expectations.
Philosophy is connected to effective teachers because those who understand and know what they want their students to achieve and what roles each of them need to take, will be motivated and successful in making it happen.
An effective teacher uses technology to engage and further student knowledge, and also to keep music relevant and up to date.
An effective teacher can create a curriculum utilizing the standards and their personal teaching philosophy, understanding where to go and how to get there.
An effective teacher understands and knows many learning theories to help reach every student.
Observing and analyzing teaching behavior is connected to peer teaching because to observe each others' peers helps understand how to complete certain activities and creates bonding.
Practicum is connected to observing behavior because most of the experience was dedicated to observing and analyzing a great teacher in the field.
Beliefs are strongly connected to philosophy because both exclusively influence each other at the same level; philosophy is in beliefs, as beliefs help write philosophies.
During the Practicum, classroom management was a huge part of my observations and analyzing; he controlled the classroom well.
The Practicum experience teacher utilized technology well and efficiently throughout lessons, engaging the students when possible.
Choral music is connected to planning instruction because it requires a certain type of warm-up to not strain voices.
Philosophy is connected to curriculum because all curriculum are derived from philosophies. Philosophy is where they want students to go, and curriculum is the pathway to it.
Diversity is connected to teacher identity because the differentiation of skills in the classroom will determine the type of teacher needed.
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