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Shakespeare

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by

Christan Reilly

on 9 January 2015

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Transcript of Shakespeare

1400-1700
“Rebirth” of arts, culture, and science.
Discovery of the“New World”.
Copernicus: Sun-centered Universe (1543)
King Henry VIII = Renaissance man (ideal)
Reformation of Catholic Church
The Renaissance
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn (2nd of 6 wives)
Henry had Ann (and his previous wives) beheaded for “treason”.
Younger sister of “Bloody Mary”(known for killing protestants to impress King Phillip of Spain).

Queen Elizabeth
A
motif

is a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc., especially in a literary, artistic, or musical work.

Motifs in
Romeo and Juliet:
Light and dark
Time
Fate
Motifs
Tragedy
Written in 1595
Set in Verona, Italy during the Italian Renaissance (fourteenth or fifteenth century)

Romeo and Juliet
Wealthy got benches
Poor audience members were called “groundlings and stood around stage in “the pit”.
Women not allowed (had to dress up as men to attend).
Much more interaction between actors and audience than today.
The Audience
All male actors
Female roles played by young boys whose voices had not changed.
No actual kissing or hugging on stage.
Actors
One set used all year long, rarely washed.
Underclothing slept in, infrequently changed.
Clothes handed down from rich to poor.
Clothes
Open gutters, raw sewage, and rotting garbage was common in most major cities of the time.
Unsanitary conditions caused the outbreak of the Bubonic Plague (black death)
Bubonic was rampant from 1563 to 1603.
1592 the plague hit London hard and the theaters were closed down. During this time, Shakespeare wrote most of his poetry.
London 1600s
                  
Conditions in London were not pleasant.
Homes of the poor were small and dirty
Overcrowding and unemployment were major problems.
No running water, Chamber Pots
Living Conditions
Blood and gore
Use of supernatural
Use of disguises/mistaken identity
Multiple deaths (in tragedies)
Theatrical Conventions
(continued)
No lighting
Women forbidden to act on stage
Elaborate costumes
Props were few, but important
Minimal scenery
Information given in dialogue.
Theatrical Conventions
(A theatrical convention is a
suspension of reality)
Member and later part-owner of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later called the King’s Men.
Globe Theater built in 1599 by L.C.M. with Shakespeare as primary investor
Burned down in 1613 during one of Shakespeare’s plays
Theater Career
Courtyard surrounded by three levels of galleries.
Daytime/open air/roofless.
No artificial lighting.
Limited set design.
Relied on music, sound, costumes, props and great description.
Traits of The Globe Theatre
in London

Shakespeare coined many words we still use today:
Cruelhearted, The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Eyesore, The Taming of the Shrew
Quarrelsome, As You Like It
Dwindle, Macbeth
And quite a few phrases as well:
“Eaten out of house and home” Henry IV
“Cruel to be kind” Hamlet
“Knock, knock! Who’s there?” Macbeth
“Too much of a good thing” As You Like It
“Neither a borrower nor a lender be” Hamlet
“To thine own self be true” Hamlet
“A tower of strength” Richard III
Shakespeare’s Language
Plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare:
14 comedies
10 histories
10 tragedies
Authored 154 sonnets
The Plays
In 1582, when he was eighteen, he married a local twenty-six year old woman, Anne Hathaway. They had two daughters, Judith and Susanna, and a son - Hamnet
In 1587, leaving his family in Straford, Shakespeare went to London.
By 1592 he was an actor and an established playwright.


Personal Facts
1563-1616
Born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England
Plays have been translated into many languages, musicals, ballets, and movies.
Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English literature.
William Shakespeare
Arthur Brooke (or Arthur Broke) (d. circa 1563) was an English poet, whose only known work is
The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet (1562).
Considered to be William Shakespeare's chief inspiration for his famous play Romeo and Juliet.
Play’s source
Bathing considered dangerous
Body odor strong
There was a real problem with lice and bugs infesting clothes.
Childhood diseases
Children often died before 5 years
Small Pox
Bubonic Plague
Personal hygiene/health
A mix of old and very new
Rural and urban words/images
Understandable by the lowest peasant and the highest noble
Shakespeare’s Language
Attended Stratford Grammar School.
Studied Latin and ancient texts.
It is thought that after he left school at the age of about fourteen he worked with his father, making gloves.


Education
What would you do if your parents did not approve of someone you were dating?

How important is the opinion of your family in decisions that you make?

Does violence solve problems?
Things to think about…
Context: England during Shakespeare's Time
Parents were John and Mary Arden. Mary was the daughter of wealthy landowner and John was a glove-maker, local politician.
Full transcript