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Transcript of WTO
Meng Yao Wang, Alberto Rodriguez, Sandra Perez Vivian
What is the WTO?
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
, a Treaty
affiliated with the United Nations whose
facilitate international trade
. The primary actions of the organization were to freeze and reduce tariff levels on various commodities.
It provided global trade rules as well as a framework for trade disputes from 1948 to 1994 .
What is GATT ?
IMF-International Monetary Fund
The World Trade Organization is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
At its heart are the WTO Agreements.
Essentially, the WTO is a place where member governments try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other.
is to help producers of goods and services conduct their business.
Ensure trade flows
Rules have to be
After the Second World War several countries wanted an early boost to trade liberalization and leave behind protectionists measures, which remained in place since the early 1930s .
On October 30, 1947 the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) among 23 members representing one-fifth of world trade was signed.
The WTO was born out of negotiations.
The WTO´s current work comes from the Uruguay Round and earlier negotiations under the GATT.
The WTO is currently the host to new negotiations
DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
The WTO´s main activities are:
- negotiation the reduction or elimination of obstacles to trade
- administering and monitoring the application of the WTO´s agreed
- monitoring and review the trade policies of our members
- settling disputes
- building capacity
- assisting the process of accession
- conducting economic research
- explaining the public about WTO
31 others are negotiating
3.Goods council, the services council,
and intellectual property council
highest institutional body
conducts the organization's
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) promotes international financial stability and monetary cooperation. It also seeks to facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.
Cooperation and reconstruction (1944–71)
The end of Bretton Woods system (1972-81)
Debt and painful reforms (1982–89)
Societal Change for Eastern Europe and Asian Upheaval (1990-2004)
Globalization and the Crisis (2005 - present)
Organization & Finances
The IMF has a management team and 17 departments that carry out its country, policy, analytical, and technical work. One department is charged with managing the IMF's resources. This section also explains where the IMF gets its resources and how they are used.
The IMF is led by a Managing Director, who is head of the staff and Chairman of the Executive Board. The Managing Director is assisted by a First Deputy Managing Director and three other Deputy Managing Directors.
Staff of international civil servants
The IMF currently employs about 2,400 staff, half of whom are economists. Most of them work at the IMF's Washington, D.C., headquarters
The IMF supports its membership by providing
- policy advice to governments and central banks based on analysis of economic trends and cross-country experiences;
- research, statistics, forecasts, and analysis based on tracking of global, regional, and individual economies and markets;
- loans to help countries overcome economic difficulties;
- concessional loans to help fight poverty in developing countries; and
- technical assistance and training to help countries improve the management of their economies.
The IMF currently has a near-global membership of 188 countries. To become a member, a country must apply and then be accepted by a majority of the existing members. In April 2012, Republic of South Sudan joined the IMF, becoming the institution's 188th member.
- To maintain stability and prevent crises in the international monetary system, the IMF reviews country policies and national, regional, and global economic and financial developments
- IMF financing provides its members breathing room to correct balance of payments problems
Technical assistance -
The IMF provides technical assistance and training to help member countries strengthen their capacity to design and implement effective policies.
- IMF financing provides member countries the breathing room they need to correct balance of payments problems.
Research and data
- Supporting all three of these activities is the IMF’s economic and financial research and statistics.
The diagram below provides a stylized view of the IMF's current governance structure.
The IMF collaborates with the World Bank, regional development banks, the World Trade Organization (WTO), UN agencies, and other international bodies.
Liberalization of international trade
Promotion of international trade
Reduction of Tariffs
Reducing other trade barriers
Elimination of discrimination in trade
Implementation of tariff as the only way
to protect markets .
General Most-Favored-Nation Treatment Clause
General most General Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
If the COUNTRY "A" gives COUNTRY "B" the most favored-nation treatment he undertakes not to treat the goods, services, capital, from that country, in its territory differently (worse) that the property, services and capital, from any privileged THIRD COUNTRY.
Any state or customs territory having FULL AUTONOMY in the conduct of its trade policies may become a member (“accede to”) the WTO, but all WTO members must agree on the terms.
National Treatment on Internal Taxation and Regulation
Stipulates the general principle that contracting parties must not apply internal taxes and other internal charges, and laws, regulations and requirements affecting imported or domestic products so as to afford protection to domestic production.
Free trade zones
Small Border trade