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Psychology: The Basics


Ben Mahoney

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Psychology: The Basics

The Basics Psychological Mehtods There are basically 3 mehtods:
1) Descriptive
2) Experimental
cause and effect
3) Correlational
the realtionship between 2 variables Descriptive Research Methods
Case studies
Naturalistic observation
Surveys Experimental
Looking to manipulate test conditions
Looking to explain an event or behavior
Independent and Dependent variables Dependent Variable (DV):
The variable being measured
Not manipulated
Independent Variable (IV):
Manipulated by the researcher
Hypothesized (H) to influence behavior For Example:
The H is that room temepreture will reduce test scores
DP is the test score
IV is the room tempreture Correlation Studies
Looking for a relationship between measured variables
There is NO manipulation of any of the variables
Relationships can be positive and negative Correlation Co-efficient (r)
Co-efficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0
0 represents no relationship
-1 or +1 represents an absolute relationship For example:
The more you smoke the more chance you have of getting lung cancer: (r= +.86)
The more broccoli you eat, the less chance you have of getting stomach cancer: (r= -.86) Ranges of r:
Low r = 0.1 - 0.3
Mid r = 0.4 - 0.6
High r= 0.7 - 0.9 Data Collection Methods Self Report
Asking people how the feel and think
Naturalistic Observation Questionnaires
Short or long form
Can even be essay form
Can be Qual. of Quan. data
Very popular method Interviews:
Qualitative Data
Structured interview
Where the questions are prepared
Unstructured where there is little preperation Types of Data
Data comes in the form of words
Data processed as numbers Self Report
Questionnaires and surveys
Observation Statistical
Methods Descriptive Statistics
Simple way of describing the data set
Most common:
Mode Mean:
SImply the average of the data set:
eg. 2,3,1,7,5,7,7
Mean = 32/7 = 4 Median:
The number that in the middle of the data set
e.g. 1,2,3,5,7,7,7

As you can see, the numbers must be in order The mode is the number that occurs the most
e.g. 2,3,1,7,5,7,7
7 is the mode How we Get the Information Psycholgy Methods
Correlational Data Collection Methods
Self Report
Observation Statistical Analysis
Descriptive statistic
Inferentail statistics
Statistic Significance The Golden Rule:
Correlation PREDICTS
Correlation DOES NOT SHOW CAUSE Inferential Statistics
Descriptive statistics are designed to describe
Inferencial statistics attempt to infer
Examines populations - cannot test all SCH so you test the medical department (sample) Standard deviation (Sd)
represents the amount of variation from the mean
e.g. 1, 5, 9 3, 5, 7
Mean = 5 5
Sd = 4 2 Statistical Significance Chance Variability:
When testing a population, any results you find may not be truely inferential
Chance Variability represents the the possibility of great varience or unusual results
e.g you might, by chance, sample a unusually greater amount of freshman than seniors, effecting the data. Statistical Significance
Indicates the liklihood that our results are due to chance.
Affected by:
Size of the effect
Population size
Numerically represented by: <.05 Statistical significance
Statistical significance represents reliable results
Doesn't represent general significance eg.
New research suggests (<.05) medicine reduces cancer by .00003%.
While it is 'statistically significant' (i.e. true results), it does not really help cure cancer and is therefore not 'practically significant' http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=observational+techniques&emb=0&aq=f#q=psychology+mehods&view=2&emb=0 Research Methods Reseaons for research

1) Looking at the way in which external fators effect the behavior, affect and cognitions of individuals

2) Research of individuals with behavioral, affective and cognitve problems

3) Design of tests and measures that index the behavioral, affective and cognitve function

4) To develop ways to improve the behavior, affect and cognitions of those suffering problems.

5) To improve the happiness of those who would be considered 'normal' people http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=psycholog+methods&emb=0&aq=f#
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