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Data Design

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Talin Amirian

on 29 January 2016

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Transcript of Data Design

Usage of a Database
the design is the structure a database uses to plan, store, manage & ultimately understand the data collected overtime
Steps to Design a Database:
Components & Relationships:
Database Administration & Processing
Importance & interpretation
Why is database design important?

Databases help people keep track of things, particularly in situations where you have to keep track of multiple themes. This is

in business settings where you may have to keep track of tons of information about customers, suppliers, and orders!

For you as a business student, it is also useful to know about databases because it increases the level of your marketable skills. By being aware of emerging DBMS technologies and learning to utilize such programs as Access, you gain a competitive advantage over those who do not have such skills and knowledge. Like understanding Excel and other business related programs, understanding database design will help you in the workplace and help you access information more efficiently!
Data Design: Group C
Talin Amirian
Tiffany Sakauchi
Jonathan Wong
Brandi Wong
Bryan Amador

What is Data Design?
The process of producing a organized database model with the collection of data for a particular database. This includes the logical and physical data needed to understand the business language of a company or proposal.
Example of a standard database design
1. Talin:
Overview of a Database Design & graphic example
2. Brandi:
Steps to a Database Design & DBMS
3. Jon:
Defining the specific design and Keys
4. Tiffany:
Database Administration & Processing
5. Bryan:
Importance of database design and its use in the business world

Breakdown of Sections
Databases are used for storage of multiple themes
Ex. Medical Records, Grade input, Time sheet, Attendance

The design of the database explains the relationship each component has with one another ultimately binding the relationship to create the outcome

& DBMS: (database management system): Software
Purpose of a database is to simplify the understanding & collection of the data, creating relationships between them.

The design contains tables, rows, fields, columns and meta data to bring together a relationship between the data.

The development of a DBMS and Administration is key to having a process that is understandable and provides consistency.

Databases are an importance factor in the business aspect of a company/program as they bring together relationships that contribute to figure out logical approaches to things with ease.

One function of a DBMS is to process the database.

The DBMS provides applications for four processing operations:
1. to read
2. to insert
3. to modify
4. to delete data.

These operations are requested in operation calls upon the DBMS.

The overall quality, usage and significance of the data is strongly dependent on the
design path
Simpler form of database design done on Excel...
Grouped on Access...
Review Question #1

What is an example of a database management system?
A. Oracle
B. Motorola
C. Access
D. Both A & C
Review Question #2
A ___________ is a field or set of fields with values that are unique throughout a table. Values of the key can be used to refer to entire records
A. Primary key
B. Record
C. Column
D. Foreign Key
There are several specific elements in a databases application.

Forms - Show all selected fields in a record allows users to view data, insert new data, update existing data, and deleting old data
Reports - Structured presentation of data using sorting grouping filtering and other operations
Queries - searches based upon data values that were provided by the user
Application Programs - Provide security data consistency, and special purpose processing like handling out of stock situations

Each database table is composed of records and fields that hold the appropriate data. Together they form tables that are used as the primary storage for the data in databases. Here are some of the key elements in a database and what they do to affect it. A table is the primary unit of physical storage in a database. Whenever a user accesses the database, a table is usually shown to refer to the desired data.
Database management systems (DBMS) is a system software for creating and managing databases.
The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.
Some major DBMS software include mySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Oracle, Sybase, IBM DB2.

1. Determine the purpose of your database
- Helps you know what information you want from the database.

2. Find & organize the information required
- Gather all of the types of information you might want to record in the database, such as product name and order number

Web References:
1. http://www.databaseanswers.org/data_models/

2. http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/database-management-system

3. http://www.developer.com/db/article.php/10920_719041_2/The-Elements-of-a-Database.htm

4. http://www.cengage.com/school/corpview/RegularFeatures/DatabaseTutorial/db_elements/db_elements2.htm
Steps of Database Design
3. Divide the information into tables
- Divide your information items into major entities or subjects, such as Products or Orders. Each subject then becomes a table

4. Turn information items into columns
- Decide what information you want to store in each table. Each item becomes a field, and is displayed as a column in the table. (names, address, email, etc)
5. Specify primary keys
-Choose each table’s primary key. The primary key is a column that is used to uniquely identify each row. ( ID number/ serial number)

6. Set up the table relationships
- Look at each table and decide how the data in one table is related to the data in other tables. Add fields to tables or create new tables to clarify the relationships, as necessary
An example of a table is shown below, tables can also be grouped together to be used as a reference for the specific topic.
7. Refine your design
- Analyze your design for errors. Create the tables and add a few records of sample data. See if you can get the results you want from your tables. Make adjustments to the design, as needed

8. Apply the normalization rules

-Apply the data normalization rules to see if your tables are structured correctly. Make adjustments to the tables, as needed
A database form shows all or selected fields for one record in a user friendly way so people can easily understand it.

A report presents data in an attractive format so that when or if they are ever printed out they will look presentable to the receiving party. Reports can display data from tables or queries in order to group certain objects together for simpler use.

An example of a report is showed below:
The data below is group and categorized by either resolved or unresolved incidents

Queries are used to find records in a database according to what criteria you decide to specify. In other words it is kinda like a search function that scans the entire database to find what you are looking for. Sometimes there will be a lot of extra data provided in the database you are working with and a query is a nice little way to sort out and group the things that you are working with.
For example in a database containing over 1000 fields you maybe only want to look at the people containing only
cases. A query can help display those results so you won't have to waste your time looking at all the extra unnecessary data.
Before query:
After using the Query to look up "resolved"
Structured Query Language (SQL) is an international standard language for processing a database.

Many DBMS products, such as DB2, Access, SQL Server, and MySQL accept and process SQL statements.

This SQL statement inserts a new row into a table:

([Student Number], [Student Name], HW1, HW2, MidTerm)
VALUES (1000, ‘Franklin, Benjamin’, 90, 95, 100)
Statements like these are ”behind the scenes” calls to make changes by programs that process forms.

Another DBMS function is to assist in the administration of the database.

Database administration can involve a wide array of activities such as setting up a security system, backing up database data, adding structures to improve the performance of database applications, removing data that is no longer wanted or needed, and more!

For important databases, many companies dedicate one or more employees or the role of database administration.

Examples of Database Administration Tasks
NoSQL DBMS is nonrelational DBMS.

This refers to software systems that support high transaction rates, process relatively simple data structures, and are replicated by many servers on the cloud.

Some companies have developed their own NoSQL DBMS to
meet their business needs. Examples include:

Dynamo (Amazon.com)

Bigtable (Google)

Cassandra (Facebook)

But NoSQL DBMS is expensive to develop and can only be used by those with an extensive background in CS. So the likelihood of it replacing relational DBMS products is low!

Since relational DBMS products are not likely to be replaced, it is still important to learn how to use products like
and develop your understanding of databases and data base processing and administration.

However, being aware of new technologies such as NoSQL is also useful. It's helpful to keep ahead of emerging trends in the business and technology sectors. It is also useful from an investor's perspective to watch developments in nonrelational DBMS products to see how the industry grows.
Primary keys: is a key in a relational database that is unique for each record. It is a unique identifier, such as a driver license number, telephone number or even something as simple as an ID number
Secondary key: is made on a field that you would like to be indexed for faster searches. A table can have more than one secondary key. Its main purpose is to make data easier to find.
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