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How does knowledge emerge from data?

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Yi Fan Chang

on 1 December 2014

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Transcript of How does knowledge emerge from data?

YiFan Chang
HOW DOES KNOWLEDGE EMERGE FROM DATA?
1. Openness as Infrastructure
(John Wilbanks, 2011)

2. As Data Overflows Online,
Researchers Grapple with
Ethics
(Vindu Goel, 2014)
Openness as infrastructure, 2011
Journal of Cheminformatics
John Wilbanks
Sage Bionetworks
"where we build tools and policies that help networks of people who have their health data share it with networks of people who like to analyze health data."
Special thanks to Camila Jenkin
Ted Talk: Let’s pool our medical data
Tulane University, Bachelor of Philosophy
The Sorbonne, Modern Letters
Past jobs
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation
co-founded Incellico, which is now part of Selventa.
Year 2011
Earthquake in Japan
Coreflood botnet taken down
The wedding of Prince William
Osama bin Laden killed
Microsoft buys Skype
Final film of Harry Potter
Openness as infrastructure
John Wilbanks
Stories
Science
papers
Famous Journals
People
trust
Where does the trust come from?
"the brand of the journal, built over years through the recruitment of trusted scientists to serve as
peer reviewers
" (Wilbanks, 2011)
Method
Paper
advertisement of research
understanding of the existing paradigm
describe method, results, implications
Science
Science = wiki ?
"every topic in science is open for back and forth and new discoveries spark rounds of editing and re-editing, and the print equivalent of flame wars in biting letters to the editor." (Wilbanks, 2011)
era of increasingly computerized science
Science is drowning
What do we need?
Full Scale Revolution
Open Access
John Wilbanks
put literature online
free of charge
free of copyright
provide credit to the author
(the Budapest Open Access Initiative)
separate the subjective judgement of impact from a more objective judgment of scientific validity in the peer review process
+
new system into the existing data infrastructure
Infrastructure
but...in the data world
no links
no accepted standard language
No good way to structure data
(given certain inputs, what our decision matrix looks like)
3 essential elements missing
1. Scientific Collaboration
2. Classification
3. Data Openness
Collaboration
ex. Labs
infrastructure to distribute collaboration
(disciplines)
Classification
ex. categories, links & tags
need of right search string
need of formal classification imposed
Data Openness
Open data license
Legal user interfaces
Tech implementations of licenses
help...
create low-cost marketplace of ideas
address classification problem
Example 1 of open data
Example 2 of open data
Astronomy
longstanding tradition of sharing open data
evolved, open source infrastructure for virtual collaboration
Openness
NORM
Classification
Collaboration
Biology
data becomes larger
discoveries become more complex
only tractable method: Open data
ex. pharmaceutical industry's investment of data
ex. Sage Bionetworks
Conclusion
making reproducible claims under similar circumstances
Collaboration+Classification+Openness=
Barriers?
time lag(infrastructure<-->results)
Open data will win out
"return scientific data to its most natural state, one that is a pure public good, that gains more value as more people possess it" (Wilbanks, 2011)
As data overflows online, researchers Grapple with Ethics, 2014
The New York Times
Vindu goel
Harvard University
University of Michigan, Knight-Wallace
Vindu Goel
Technology reporter at The Times
Past jobs
San Jose Mercury News
Contra Costa Times
The Plain Dealer
The Wall Street Journal
Year 2014
Ebola Virus Outbreak
Super Bowl XLVII Champion: Seahawks
Malaysia Airlines plane crashes
End to NSA's bulk data collection
2014 FIFA World Cup
Twitter sues the US government
As Data Overflows Online, Researchers Grapple With Ethics
Vindu Goel
(Facebook & Twitter)
Scholars
Social Science Research
New Era
without people knowing
not knowing they are subjects
no explicitly consent
Jeffrey Hancock
Co-author of Facebook study
(700,000 people's news feeds)
published in June, 2014
OUTRAGE
Create
ethical guidelines
for research
(Academics, corporate researchers & government agencies)
Other organizations
MIT & Stanford university
The Federal Trade Commision
Microsoft Research
panels & conferences
offering software tool
privacy and fair treatment of internet users
"Consumers should be in their driver's seat when it comes to their data." (Edith Ramirez)
Facebook's reaction?
Apologized but declined further comments
Product Adjustments
(What does people prefer to see?)
Facebook Emotion Experiment
Facebook Voting Experiment
Facebook data scientist Adam Kramer, Professor Hancock & academic researcher Jamie Guilory
How emotions spread through large population?
"deliberately changed the number of positive and negative posts in the subjects' news feeds"
"how the changes affected the emotional tone of the users' subsequent Facebook posts"
(Geol, 2014)
sent voting reminders to 61 million American users on Election day in 2010
seeing more friends' posts of voting
prompting more people to vote
Facebook
QUESTIONS

Citation:

Goel, V. (2014, August 12). As Data Overflows Online, Researchers Grapple With Ethics. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/technology/the-boon-of-online-data-puts-social-science-in-a-quandary.html

Wilbanks, J. (2011). Openness as infrastructure. Journal of Cheminformatics, 3(1), 1–5.
Reference:
http://del-fi.org/jtw
http://on.ted.com/Wilbanks
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/g/vindu_goel/index.html
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29528665
http://www.historyorb.com/events/date/2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014
http://thumb1.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/689956/211605970/stock-vector-ebola-symptoms-and-signs-infographics-211605970.jpg
http://fc06.deviantart.net/fs71/i/2014/035/3/6/seahawks_super_bowl_48_champions_poster_by_ammsdesings-d7501xh.jpg
http://o.aolcdn.com/dims-shared/dims3/GLOB/crop/4430x2678+0+147/resize/600x360!/format/jpg/quality/85/http://o.aolcdn.com/hss/storage/adam/ecffa95214a5e3b6f0b61edaa03445a7/478140055.jpg
http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/463262653.jpg
http://darkroom-cdn.s3.amazonaws.com/2014/07/REU-SOCCER-WORLDM64-GER-ARA.jpg
http://s1.ibtimes.com/sites/www.ibtimes.com/files/styles/v2_article_large/public/2014/10/07/twitter-inc.png?itok=QZ3q0bpH
http://static01.nyt.com/images/2014/08/13/business/Social1/Social1-master675.jpg
http://static01.nyt.com/images/2014/08/13/business/Social2/Social2-articleLarge.jpg
http://uncgsoc301.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/clip_image0031.gif?w=269
http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/research_ethics.png
http://static5.businessinsider.com/image/53aeeecceab8ea4d55f99e0d-480/girl-facebook-sad-lonely.jpg
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/files/2012/09/Facebook_voting.jpg
http://www.macrobusiness.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/url1.jpeg
http://rtcmagazine.com/files/images/1322/rtc1008td_intel1_large.jpg
http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/archive/ci/31/i02/figures/1558cartoon_E.gif

(http://del-fi.org/jtw)
network
What are the research for?
2 Facebook Experiments
Rules?
Existing federal rules require consent from those studied unless the potential for harm is minimal.
-->inadequate guidance for large scale research
Make the rules without preventing the development of research (Sinan Aral, MIT)
Researchers conduct research with little outside guidance. (Mary Gray, IU)
researchers didn’t realize that manipulating would make some people feel violated.(Hancock)
Solutions?
opt-in process
debriefing system
1.John Wilibanks wonders if:
"The desire to protect our
privacy is slowing down research?"

How do you think privacy concerns affect growth of knowledge?
4. What do you think about companies like Facebook who conduct experiments like the one we've discussed?

Two groups:

one side of the class discuss the pros of this experiment

other side discuss the cons of the experiment
2. What types of experiments are so intrusive that they need prior consent or prompt disclosure after the fact?
3. How do we decide what data we can freely assemble without restriction to create new knowledge? and what data can we not?

WHO even decides where that line is?
Full transcript