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Design and Manufacture Question Paper

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by

Mark McArthur

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of Design and Manufacture Question Paper

Design Topic Area
Design Team
Ergonomists
They use scientific research and information to improve human interaction with products.
Design Process
The uses and/or roles (or function) of key elements within the processes of designing.
Design Factors
Communication Techniques and Modelling
Design and Manufacture Question Paper
The Impact of Design Technologies on the Society and the Environment
Materials and Manufacturing Topic Area
Planning for Manufacture
Tools, Materials and Processes
Manufacturing in Industry
The Properties of Common Materials
The Impact of Manufacturing Technologies and Activities on the World of Work and Society
Health and Safety
Retailers
include Planners, Buyers, Allocation Teams, Visual Merchandisers, Loss Prevention and Security Specialists, Consumer Services professionals and Real Estate/Store Development experts
Identification of a Problem
Brief
Research
Specification
Idea Generation
Development and Refinement of Ideas
Evaluation
Design Brief Analysis
Stating function, expected performance and target market in this bit.
Morphological Analysis
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Metalworking
Processes
Materials
Ferrous Metals
Metals that contain iron.
Non-Ferrous Metals
Metals that don't contain iron.
Alloys
Made of multiple metals to give different properties
Marking
Cutting
Shaping
Odd-Leg Calipers
Set to a measurement and draw line parallel to edge.
Dot Punch
Used to create witness marks, which help show where there is a line. Use a hammer with it.
Engineers Square
Like a compass but with two sharp points, used to make curved lines and can also make parallel lines like the odd-leg calipers.
Divider
Special sharp and hard tools are needed to mark-out lines on metal. As these lines become very difficult to see, scratched on a thin layer of “marking-out blue" is brushed on first. A permanent marker-pen can be used in place of the “blue ink-like” liquid.
Marking-Out Blue
Used to draw/scratch lines on a metal surface. Used with Engineers Square. Must not be used to do anything else.
Scriber
Similar to Try Square (used for wood) but smaller and more accurate. Has same purpose, to make lines 90* to an edge.
Centre Punch
Used to make a hole for drilling into metal, it is tubbier than the dot punch. Use a hammer again.
Hacksaw
It's a saw.
Chisel
It's a chisel.
Snips
Generally used on thin sheets of metal, they snip it.
Turning
Spinny spinny shape shape
Knurling
Makes a diamond-shaped criss cross pattern for better grip. Commonly done on a lathe. Fancy rollers are used to get the pattern. Make the lathe slow.
Steel
Pig Iron
Multiple Alloys
Aluminium
Copper
More Expensive
Useful ones tend to have a useful property that ferrous metals don't
Tin
Lead
Bronze
Brass
Steel
Pig Iron
Plastics
Processes
Materials
Thermoplastics
Plastics that return to their original shape when heated.
Thermosetting Plastics
Plastics that once heated and moulded will keep their shape and doesn't remold.
Marking
Cutting
Shaping
If it has protective layer, use pencil
You can draw on top of masking tape too
You could use a template or something
If no protection use non-permanent spirit marker
Try Squares are good
Scribing Knife
Used to cut thin sheets of acrylic. Run knife along line and knock pieces apart.
Works on all plastics, use soldering iron tip to cut along plastic. Clean cut.
Hot Knife
Cuts plastic, it's a saw. Plastic needs finishing if cut with this.
Hand Saw
Plastics injected into a mould. Good for thermoplastics. Fast and accurate.
Injection Moulding
Using saws, files etc
Machining
You can keep heating them again and again.
Nylon
Polypropylene
Remolding means it can be recycled easily.
Can't be remolded, means they're less commonly used and not recyclable.
Stronger and works better in heat than thermoplastics. This stuff ain't gonna melt on you easily.
Urea Formaldehyde
Bakelite
Vulcanized rubber
Good for Thst, the plastic is laid out and two big moulds compress it into shape while it cures.
Compression Moulding
Plastic is melted and formed in a continuous profile, makes wires and such. Thpl
Extrusion
Used for thin sheets of plastic, air sucked out to pull plastic over mould. Makes masks and such.
Vacuum Forming
Heat plastic on metal bar or strip heater and bend it.
Bending
Makes plastic bottles, melted plastic blown into mould, makes hollow shape. Thpl
Blow Moulding
Hollow mould has plastic put into it, it spins and heats so plastic sticks to the side. Thpl
Rotational Moulding
Fancy Factory Processes
Shaping we can do in Workshop
Rubberized plastic
All dem Bottles
Shearing
The guillotine cutty thing. Can't do delicate work.
Annealing
When you heat the metal and then let it cool so it is more workable.
Taper Turning
An operation performed on a lathe that feeds a tool at an angle to the length of the workpiece in order to create a conical shape.
Sand Casting
Metal casting process where sand is used as the mould.
Permanent Mould Casting
Metal casting where permanent, normally metal, mould is used. Generally gravity is used to fill mould, but gas pressure and vacuum can also be used.
Die Casting
Forces molten metal under pressure into a reusable steel mould.
Investment Casting
More expensive but more accurate than sand and die casting, uses a wax mould. Long process.
Laser Cutting
LAZERZ! The material either melts, burns away or is blown away by a jet. Leaves a nice finish. Cuts flat sheet.
Woodworking
Processes
Materials
Softwoods
Wood from gymnosperm trees. Evergreen trees are often called softwoods. Around 80% of the world's production of timber. They grow faster.
Hardwoods
Wood from angiosperm trees. More complex structure than softwoods, and generally harder. Varied uses, but generally more expensive.
Man Made Boards
Engineered by binding strands/fibres/particles of wood together with adhesives to form composite materials. Low costs and low weight. Can be enginneered for specification.
Marking
Cutting
Shaping/ Joining
Acrylic
Also known as Perspex or Plexiglass. Sturdy substitute for glass. Extensively used for making signs and logos. Used in schools.
Silk substitute in some stuff. Its fibers are useful for fabrics, ropes etc. In bulk form it is used for mechanical parts, like screws and power tool casings. Used in manufacture of heat resistant composites,
Resistant and good for doing injection moulding I think.
Plywood
Manufactured wood panel made from thin veneers (sheet things) glued together. Grain of wood is put in rotating angles, veneer by veneer. High-quality high-strength.
MDF
Medium-Density Fibreboard. Formed by breaking down wood into fibres, adding resin or wax, then forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Is generally denser than plywood. Stronger and denser than particle board.
Hardboard
Denser and stronger and harder, made of highly compressed exploded wood fibres, bonding does not require adhesive but resin is often added.
Scots Pine Redwood
Easy to work, easy to stain, easy to paint and varnish, low stiffness, strong, light yellow to reddish brown, can be difficult to glue due to resin.
Pine
Excellent dimensional stability, yellow, soft, straight and even textured grain, easy to work, produces good finishing, has a low shrinkage.
Cedar
Poor for steam bending, easy to work with, has aromatic scent, low stiffness, straight and fine even grain.
Spruce
Easy to work, pale coloured, straight grain, low stiffness, medium bending qualities, medium crushing strength.
Steel Rule
Tri-Square
Marking Gauge
Used to draw lines at 90* to edge
Used to draw lines parallel to edge or mark out holes for drawing
Makes straight lines
Facing Off
Cut the (not round) surface of metal to remove roughness. Very small amount of material taken off.
Parallel Turning
The normal lathing stuff to make material have less diameter. Steady movement required for even cut.
Tempering
Heating used to reduce hardness but increase toughness of metal that was heated to increase hardness.
Housing Joint
A slot is cut across the grain in one piece for another piece to set into.
Mortise and Tenon
A stub (the tenon) will fit tightly into a hole cut for it (the mortise).
Function
Performance
Market
Aesthetics
Ergonomics
Graphic Techniques
Range of Modelling Techniques and Materials
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