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LING160 Gender and Age
Transcript of LING160 Gender and Age
Yoonyoung Chung Articles Covered Key Concepts Kissau, Scott. 2006. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French. The Canadian Modern Language Review,62:3, 401-422 Clarke, Sandra. 2006. Nooz or Nyooz?: The Complex Construction of Canadian Identity. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 51.2/3:225-246 Remlinger, Kathryn. 2006. Newfies, Cajuns, Hillbillies, and Yoopers: Gendered Media Representations of Authentic Locals. Linguistica Atlantica. 27/28:96-100 Conclusion Summarizing Identity To Take Away LING160 GROUP PRESENTATION Background Information Pre-20th C. Canada still tied to Britain
British English seen as a higher-class form of English then American English
British English not practiced by the average Canadian, but some aspects of their speech inherited: Characteristic Example (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Lexical Phonological Orthographical “tap” vs. American “faucet” “antee” or “semee” for “anti” and “semi” -re vs. American –er spelling
in words like “centre” Observations Language resistance against American hegemony
Observers seeing an increased Americanization to Canadian Speech Differences between Canadian and American speech The Discourse tag "eh?" at the end of statements
Canadian Raising of Dipthongs in words like 'out' and 'house'. Example Local Observations Meechan’s study states residents of Lethbridge, Alberta could only distinguish the difference between American and Canadian speech in the term "eh". Contrary to that…
Gregg’s sample of Vancouver states that 90% of Vancouverites could distinguish Americans from their speech
Canadians have: Slower diction
Lack of twang
Speech described as crisper, more precise, softer, clipped rather than drawling
Not slurred Glides “A transitional sound heard that links two phonemically contiguous sounds, such as the “y” sound heard between the “I” and “e” in “quiet”." –dictionary.com Glide Deletion Glide Deletion Some Data: In the Media Possible Rational Decreasing number of student - Motivation directly affect how people are successful to learn languages
- Decreasing number of boys learning languages
- Canada's situation is quite different from others. Gender differences - Why boys are less interested than girls in learning the language?
- Fewer male student cause fewer male teacher
- Some research shows that the gender of teacher can affect on student attitudes and motivation Gardner's model vs modified model - Macro level
- Gardener's model emphasizes learner attitudes toward the L2 and L2 community - Micro level
- more focusing on individual factors
- Goal setting, self-efficacy, anxiety and causal attributions Factors which affect on learning -Perceptions of French
-Self-efficacy and anxiety
-locus of control
-Tolerance of ambiguity The Study This study by Katheryn A. Remlinger examines how regional stereotypes are reinforced and maintained in popular media.
Schilling-Estes (1998) explains that 'language attitudes and gender identity are linked by the concept of authentic local being "authentic" because he is the "best" speaker of local variety.' Results Ideal speakers and authentic locals maintain gender-based language stereotypes.
Women and men who do not fit traditional notions are depicted as standard speakers.
Attitudes linking language use and masculinity are basis for regional speakers. Findings in Media Representations 1. Gendered descriptions
Men (attitude, intellect, behavior)
Women (appearance and availability)
2. Gendered domains
Activities of "authentic" locals; predominately male activities (hunting, fishing, excessive drinking..etc)
3. Discursive constructions
Conversation in narratives, song-lyrics, folk lore, dialogue
4. Folk humor
Narratives based on traditional, local activities and parodies of the dialect Examples Newfies - Jack, George, Little Johnny
Cajuns - Boudreaux, Thibodeaux
Yooper - Toivo, Eino
Hillbilly - Clem, Buddy, Billy Bob, Luther Glide Deletion: Loss of Anglo-Canadian Identity or Marker of North American Speech? "There is one shibboleth of pronunciation which Canadians use to mark their difference from Americans: the pronunciation of "u" and "ew" spellings after t, d, and n. Canadians think they know that Americans invariably say "toon" for "tune", "doo" for "dew", "nooz" for "news". They also believe that the British do not do these things. Consequently when they want to stress how their English differs in sound from American English, they are particularly likely to settle on these sounds." -Pringle Linguistic difference can affect behavior towards a social group. Hope Pavey Hope Pavey Hope Pavey Hope Pavey
Linguistic choices may indicate conscious or unconscious mentalities Study by Netten (1999) - Choosing French in the senior high school: Grade 9 student attitudes to the study of French in the Western Avalon School District - All Grade 9 students from a southwestern Ontario school board actively enrolled in core French
- 985 students were given consent forms but 490 completed the questionnaire
- 254 female and 236 male
- Ages 13 to 18 Participants Participants Cont’d… - Almost 400 of the participants (80%) reported having a female French teacher compared to 20% who reported having a male French teacher
- 122 participants (25%) indicated that they planned to study French the following year in Grade 10
- 202 participants (41%) had not decided
- 166 participants (34%) stated that they did not intend to continue studying French after Grade 9 Questionnaire - Seven point Likert scale that best represented their response to statements pertaining to the motivational factors (7 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree) Survey - Sub-scale Peer and and Teacher Encouragement originated from the Grade 9 French Survey, designed by Netten (1999)
- Sub-scale Self Efficacy
- Student perceptions of French
- Second Language Tolerance Conclusion of the study - Traditional views
- Capability of learning French
- Interests in learning French Three recommended solutions 1) Greater effort in the FSL classrooms
2) Exposure to more French-speaking people
3) FSL classrooms changing social perceptions Different social groups will contrast linguistically Linguistic differences can indicate conscious or unconscious mentalities about personal social group Linguistic difference can affect behavior towards a social group We often identify ourselves with our language Gender differences in motivation to learn French Complex Construction of Canadian Identity Local observations Glides Factors which affect learning Three recommended solutions Newfies, Cajuns, Hillbillies, and Yoopers: Gendered Media Representations 1. Gendered descriptions
2. Gendered domains
3. Discursive constructions
4. Folk humor Nicholas Lo Nicholas Lo Nicholas Lo Nicholas Lo Nicholas Lo Example of a Cajun speaker:
(1) Boudreaux came up to Thibodeaux and said: "Thibodeaux, I've got some good news and some bad news."
Thibodeaux says: "What be the bad news?"
Boudreaux replies: "You're wife, Clotilde, she be found in the bayou, she done pass away."
Thibodreaux: "Oh my God, that is purtty bad, what be the good news?"
Boudreaux: "Well, when we found her, she had over a dozen crab on her, so in another hour we gonna make another run!" Andy Lai Andy Lai Andy Lai Andy Lai Yoonyoung Chung Yoonyoung Chung Yoonyoung Chung Yoonyoung Chung The glide has been consistently retained in the media
Males have a higher retention rate than females +/-Glide not representing American vs British anymore
Might indicate different social meanings while coexisting together
+Glide can be a feature associated with elegance, good breeding, prestige Derik Ng Derik Ng Derik Ng Derik Ng Rule: Palatal glides in stressed syllables are omitted in the environment of a preceding alveolar stop [Palatal Glides] -> [NULL] / _C[Alveolar Stops] Data in Vancouver:
Older Female, Upper Class
Younger Male, Working Class