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AS PE Revision
Transcript of AS PE Revision
The elasticity of the cardiac fibers - the degree of stretch of cardiac tissue prior to contraction - Sterling's Law
The Contractability of cardiac tissue - high Contractability = high stroke volume. Applied Exercise Physiology... Physical Education
AS Level Revision... 1. Health, Exercise and Fitness
3. Movement Analysis
4. Cardiovascular System
5. Respiratory System Skill Acquisition... 1. Ability Vs. Skill
2. Information Processing
3. Learning + Performance 1. Factors to Consider When Planning a Training Session
2. Presentation of Practices
3. Type of Practice
4. Teaching Styles Sociocultural Studies... 1. Health, Exercise + Fitness... Fitness = Coping with the demands of everyday life.
Health = State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. Components of Fitness... Health Related... (4xS)
Stamina - the ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory system to take in and transport oxygen.
Strength - How much resistance your muscles have against a force.
Speed - maximum rate over a period of time/specific distance.
Suppleness - range of movement about a joint.
Skill Related... (CRAB+Power)
Co-ordination - motor and nervous system to perform a task.
Reaction Time - time taken to respond to a given stimulus.
Agility - the ability to change direction quickly sustaining speed.
Balance - maintenance of the bodies center of mass over the bass support.
Power - Speed x Time. The relationship = A persons fitness can contribute to their overall health. However, a person can be fit but unhealthy. 2.Nutrition... Lifestyle choices that effect H+F... Work/Life Balance
Recreational Drug Use
Quantity of Sleep
Quality of Sleep Balanced Diet - having the right daily amounts of all of the seven nutrients.
Fibers Endurance Athlete - VH energy intake (60-70% carbs) - Carbo Loading
Power Athlete - Carbs for training. VH protein intake - Muscle growth + repair. Neutral = Intake the same as output = Maintain Weight. Negative = Intake is less than output = Lose Weight. Positive = Intake is more than output = Gain Weight. 3. Movement Analysis 5 Main Joints... Hip
Elbow Hip Ball + Socket Pelvis + Femur Flexion + Extension Hip Flexor + Gluteus Maximus Ankle Hinge Tibia and Fibular Dorsi-flexion + Plantar-flexion Gastronomies + Tibialis Anterior Knee Hinge Tibia + Femur Flexion + Extension Hamstrings + Quadriceps Elbow Hinge Humorous, Ulna + Radius Flexion + Extension Biceps + Triceps Type of Joint Articulating Bones Movement Muscle Pairs Shoulder Ball + Socket Scapular + Humorous Flexion + Extension, Deltoid/s + Latissimus Dorsi Abduction + Adduction Types of Contraction... Isometric Contraction - no movement but it is still contracting - rugby scrum Eccentric Contraction - Muscle gets longer and thinner - extension curl Concentric Contraction - Muscle gets shorter and fatter - bicep curl Lever Systems... 1st Class - EFL - Effort, Falcrum + Load = Only @ Elbow 3rd Class - LEF - Load, Effort + Falcrum = @ All other joints 2nd Class - FLE - Falcrum, Load + Effort = Only @ Ankle Remember: Sagital Plane + Transverse Axis... 5. Respiratory System... Measuring Body Composition... BIM = Weight / Height (2) - Poor Validity Skin-fold Measurements - measurements of excess skin at biceps, triceps, shoulder blade and waist. Hydrostatic Weighing - Water displacement when the body submerged. Bio-electrical Impedance - Greater the current needed the more fat %. Inspiration - Breathing In
Expiration - Breathing Out Diaphragm contracts down + flat These muscular contractions increase the size of the thorax cavity reducing the pressure in the lungs. Inspiration... The Mechanics... Inspiration is an active process which means it requires muscles in order for it to happen. External inter-coastal muscles cause the ribcage to move up and out. Atmospheric pressure is higher and since gasses move from a high to low pp air rushes into the lungs. Active process during exercise. Internal inter-coastal muscles and abdominal muscles pull the ribcage down and in which reduces the thorax cavity. Expiration... The Mechanics... Expiration is an passive process at rest. Occurs through elastic recall of the lungs and relaxation of the inspiratory muscles. The thorax cavity becomes smaller meaning pressure is higher and since gasses move from a high to low pp air rushes out of the lungs. To assist the depth of inspiration additional muscles are recruited. The force of these muscles contracting will stimulate the lung stretch receptors. Inspiration... The Control Of... Chemo Receptors detect the increase in CO2 and PH levels which send a message to the Medulla Oblongata. Medulla then increases the force at which the Diaphragm + External intercostal muscles contract. Expiration... The Control Of... Lung Stretch receptors detect the lung inflammation and tells the Medulla to prevent over-inflation. Medulla simulates the intercostal which causes forced expiration. Pulmonary Diffusion... Gaseous Exchange at the Alveoli... Partial Pressure of o2 is higher in the alveoli than the capillary.
O2 diffused into capillaries.
Partial Pressure of Co2 is higher in the capillaries than the alveoli.
Co2 diffuses into the alveoli. Pulmonary Diffusion... Gaseous Exchange at the Muscle... Partial Pressure of o2 in the capillaries are higher than the muscle cell.
O2 diffuses into the muscle.
Partial Pressure of Co2 is higher in the muscles than the capillaries.
Co2 diffuses into the capillaries. 4.Cardiovascular System... The heart has its own conduction system to control the contractions of the heart chambers. The Conduction System + Cardiac Cycle... 1. Walls of atrium's are relaxed which causes them to fill with blood.
2. SA Node then emits an electrical impulse. 3. The impulse causes a wave of excitation through the walls of both atrium which causes them to contract.
4. Blood is pushed through to the bi-tri cuspid into the ventricles. 5. The impulse from the SA Node then reaches the AV Node - This delays the impulse for 0.1 seconds which gives enough time for blood to fill the ventricles + valves to shut.
6.The same pulse then travels from the AV Node to the bundle of His in the septum. 7. Impulse travels down the septum along the bundle and reaches the purkinjie fibers at the bottom of the heart.
8.This causes the ventricles to contract, squeezing blood through the semi-lunar valves into the aorta + pulmonary vein.
9. Blood travels to the lungs and body tissue. Control of Heart Rate... Chemo-receptors detect the increase/decrease in Co2 + PH levels.
Mechano-receptors + Propreoreceptors detect increase/decrease in movement.
Baroreceptors detect an increase/decrease in blood pressure. These send messages to the Medulla
Which sends a message to SA Node Via
Sympathetic nervous system - (increase HR)
Parasympathetic nervous system - (decrease HR) Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate Cardiac Output = The volume of blood ejected from the heart per minuet. Heart Rate = The amount of cardiac cycles per minute. Stroke Volume = The volume of blood ejected from the heart per beat. All increase during exercise!!!!! Dependent On... Heart Rate - Response to Exercise... Anticipatory Rise - release of adrenalin
Exercise Begins - steep rise in HR
Maximal Exercise - linear rate
Sub-maximal Exercise - HR increases and then Plateaus
After Exercise - HR reduces steadily 1. Ability Vs. Skill... Ability = Inherited
Characteristics of... (Genetic inheritance, Number of skills, ability underpin skill)
Motor Ability = Series of genetically inherited traits. Skill = Learned
Characteristics of... (learned, Has an End + Results, Consistent, efficient + effective) Perceptual Motor - Those that involve processing information + implementing movements. E.g. Reaction time
Gross Motor - Those that involve movement + often linked with fitness. E.g. 4xS Simple Skill - has few subroutines, little information, time to evaluate situation and feedback is not crucial during performance. E.g. Swimming + Sprinting
Complex Skill - numerous sub-routines, large amount to process, limited time to evaluate and finally feedback is helpful during performance and after. E.g. Triple Jump + Trampoline Low Organizational Skill - Sub-routines that are easily identified and separated from that movement. (E.g. High Jump)
High Organizational Skill - Sub-routines that are difficult to separate and practiced in isolation. (E.g. Golf Swing) Types of Skill... Cognitive - thought processes + intellectual ability.
Motor - Physical movement + muscular control.
Perceptual - Detection and interpretation of stimulus.
Psycho-motor - Combo of motor + perceptual skills. Classification of Skill... Open = Environment Changes Open Skill Closed Skill Gross = Large muscle movements Gross Skill Fine Skill Discrete = clear beginning + end Discrete Skill Continuous Skill Self-Paced = Performer controls everything Self-Paced Skill Externally Paced Skill Closed = Stable Environment Fine = Small muscle movements Continuous = no clear beginning or end Serial = Set order for each sub-routine Externally Paced = Using others to pace performance 2. Information Processing... All models have 3 main components...
Stimulus Identification - Sense organs detecting information.
Response Selection - How to respond to the information.
Response Programming - using motor-program to initiate muscle movement. Performing Skills -
Input = Internal + External senses - Identifying the stimulus
Decision making = Perceptual mechanisms + Selective attention
Output = Physical movement - Response programing
Feedback = Internal + External Memory...
Input of Stimulus = Input of Stimulus Short Term Sensory Store Selective Attention Short Term Memory Sensory Receptors Smell Taste Sight Sound Feel Long Term Memory Prioritizing Information Limited Space
Compares to past experience Unlimited Space Collects all the information and is stored here for 1 minute, Fairly larger space. How can Memory be improved? Referring to past experience.
Appropriate methods of practice.
Intensity of stimulus. Reaction Time... Reaction Time = The time taken to recognize a given stimulus.
Movement Time = The time from the beginning of movement to the end.
Response Time = Reaction time + Movement Time.
Choice Reaction Time = Response to a stimulus when others are available.
Simple Response Time = Responding as there is only one stimulus. Psychological Refractory Period... Stimulus 1 Stimulus 2 Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Motor Program = a series of subroutines organized into the correct sequence to perform a movement. Feedback... Used to improve performance, aids goal setting, helps identify strengths + weaknesses. Forms -
KP = Knowledge of Performance = information about the quality of technique.
KR = Knowledge of Results = information about the outcomes. Types of Feedback... Concurrent = On going information (usually internal).
Terminal = After the performance.
Positive - Encouraging to repeat the action.
Negative = Discourage the repetition. 3. Learning + Performance... Learning = A change in behavior. Environment Resources Teachers/coaches Practice Distractions Relatively Permanent Phases of learning...
Beginner = Cognitive
Intermediate = Associative
Advanced = Autonomous Performance = Can vary and can be affected by... Injury/Fitness Standard of Competition Environment Motivation Performance Curves... Time Performance or
Achievement Linear Curve = Performance improves in direct proportion to time. Time Performance or
Achievement Positive Acceleration Curve = Performance improves slowly initially but speeds up later. Time Performance or
Achievement Negative Acceleration Curve = Performance improves in quickly initially but slows down later. Time Performance or
Achievement S-shaped Curve = The performance is indicated by a combination of the curves outlined. Time Performance or
Achievement Plateau Curve = Performance improves but it reaches a point at which no further improvement occurs Reasons For Plateau In Performance... Boredom/Lack of motivation
Fatigue/Lack of fitness
Inappropriate practice methods
Poor coaching/ Guidance
Task is too complex Vary type & Content of practice sessions
Set realistic targets
Offer extrinsic rewards
Give new responsibility/ Role
Give recovery periods
Encourage mental rehearsal
Improve physical conditioning/fitness
Improve coaching knowledge
Provide appropriate feedback
Use whole-part-whole practice
Explain the concept to performer Remedies for Performance Plateau... Motivation...
Intrinsic = The inner drive to succeed (Intangible)
Extrinsic = External rewards then drive you to succeed e.g. money (Tangible) Theories of Learning... Conditioning Theory ;-
Linking a specific stimulus to a learned response.
Learns through trial + error
Coach manipulates environment and provides positive reinforcement or punishment.
Positive Reinforcement = Praising the performer which encourages repetition.
Negative Reinforcement = The withdrawal of a stimulus when the desired response is achieved. E.g. your not going home till you do this right.
Punishment = Threatening and Carrying out the threat. E.g. Dropped from the team. Cognitive Learning Theory ;-
The performer learns by thinking about the whole problem they are about to face.
Formulating a response based on previous experiences and the current situation not S-R Schema Theory ;-
Rather than using memory to initiate specific movement, we store a generalized series of movement patterns that we can modify and adapt to the environment.
Recall Schema =
Knowledge of Initial Conditions = Where Am I?
Knowledge of Initial Response = What Have I Got To Do?
Recognition Schema =
Sensory Consequences = What Does It Feel Like?
Response Outcome = What Was The Result? Observational Learning ;-
Watching others and coping their actions.
Bandura said there should be 4 key elements in place to allow this to occur...
Attention = The amount of focus the learner has when observing the model - Coach aids by helping to create Cues.
Retention = The creation of a mental picture for future references.
Motor Reproduction = The learner must have the ability and confidence to copy, attempt and complete the skill.
Motivation = The drive and desire to copy the actions of the model. Transfer of learning... Positive Transfer = When previously learned skill helps to develop a new skill.
Negative Transfer = Previously learned skill hinders the learning of new skills.
Bilateral Transfer = The transfer from one limb to another
Zero Transfer = Previously learned skill has no effect on the development of a new one. = "The effect that learning one skill has on another skill" 1. Concepts of Physical Education
2. Development of Physical Education
3. 1905 - Present Day
4. Sports Agencies
5. Potential Barriers Applied Psychology (Q7) 1.Factors to consider when planning a training session... Nature of performer... Experience of Coach... Environmental Conditions... Nature of Task... Have they had previous experience? Age? Gender? Motivation? Size? Physical and Mental abilities? Amount of knowledge on the activity, personality, relationship with learner or group. Facilities + Equipment, Time available, Purpose of session. Open/Closed, Gross/Fine, Discrete/serial/continuous, self-paced/externally-paced, Simple/Complex 2. Presentation of Practices... Whole Learning... This involves the performer attempting the whole movement pattern after observing a demonstration or being given verbal instructions. E.g. Golf Swing Performers develop kinaesthetic awareness.
Understand the relationship between the different sub-routines.
Experience the timing needed. It is difficult to use with complex skills
Difficult for novice performers
It is not ideal for dangerous skills. Part Learning... Involves the performer completing sub-routines of the overall movement in isolation before attempting it as a whole. E.g. Gymnastic Routine. Complex skills can be broken down into subroutines meaning they can be learnt in stages.
Specific aspects of the technique can be modified.
Reduces element of risk.
Allows periods of recovery It hinders the development of timing.
Reduces Kinaesthetic awareness.
Transfer from part to whole may not be effective.
Highly organized skills are hard to break down.
Time consuming. Progressing Part Learning... Involves the performer attempting the skill in stages and linking the phases after each has been learnt. Learn A, Learn B + A, Learn C + BA, Learn D + CBA etc. E.g. Triple Jump. Complex skills can be broken down and introduced gradually.
Novice performers can achieve success.
Performers with limited attention span can remain focused.
Understanding the relationships between subroutines.
Minimizes the risk potential.
Transfer to whole skills can be made easier. Time consuming.
Performer becomes to focused on one particular subroutine. Whole-Part-Whole Learning... Involves the performer first attempting the whole movement after demonstration. Then they develop specific sub-routines before completing the whole skill again. E.g. running lines in a rugby, stopping the session and breaking down the line and then continue to play again. Performer gets an overall feel for the movement.
Success is continuous by developing the weaker sub-routines.
Practice can focus on key areas of weakness. Venous Return Mechanism... 1) The skeletal muscle pump = Contract next to the veins squeezing blood through.
2) Pocket Valves = Prevents back flow.
3) Smooth Muscles Within Veins = Vaso-constriction.
4) The Respiratory Pump = Pressure created in thorax cavity. Cardiovascular Drift (CD)... HR Drifts Upwards... This is due to the fact that the performer is sweating causing dehydration.
Volume of blood decreases because its shunted towards the skin to cool us down.
this decreases the stroke volume which means HR must increase Vascular Shunt... Increase in Co2 is detected by the chemo receptors which then inform the medulla oblongata which through the sympathetic nervous system control... Vasoconstriction = Preventing blood going to non-essential organs. Vasodilation = Blood allowed to the working muscles The redirection of blood flow is important to the performer because... It increases o2 supply to working muscles It provides the working muscles with the necessary fuels to contract. It removes carbon dioxide and lactic acid from the muscles. It helps to maintain body temperature and rids the body of excess heat produced during exercise. Blood Pressure + Velocity... BP = The force exerted by the blood on the inside walls of the blood vessels.
Determined by;- 1) Blood flow (cardiac output)
2) Peripheral Resistance (friction from walls of blood vessels)
Measured as Systolic Pressure / Diastolic Pressure Arterial Venous O2 Difference... = How much O2 is actually being extracted and utilized by the muscles.
Measured by analyzing the difference in o2 content in the blood leaving the lungs and that mixed venous blood. Transfer may be difficult from part to the whole skill.
Some skills are difficult to break down as the overall timing may be affected. 3. Type of Practice... Massed Practice... = No rest intervals, Practice conditions are long in duration. Distributed Practice... = Training includes rest periods which gives time to recover physically and mentally. Variable Practice... = A mixture of massed and distributed practice in 1 session, practice conditions are varied to encourage the formation of schema. Also practice sessions should be as realistic as possible. 4. Teaching Styles... A = Command Style:
Involves the teacher
making all the decisions
with no input from the learners.
Used when groups are large or
undisciplined. Also when
performers need to be taught
the correct technique. B + C = Reciprocal Style:
Involves most of the
decisions being made by the
teacher with some learner input.
The task may be set by the teacher
and completed by the learners working
Used when groups are more experienced
and simple skills are involved. Also when
there is little danger present and there is
time. F = Discovery style:
Involves the teachers guiding
the learner to find the correct movement pattern by providing
information, giving specific cues or asking questions when appropriate.
Used when creativity is required, there is no right or wrong answer and when groups are more experienced. I + J = Problem Solving Style:
Involves the teacher setting a problem and the learner devising a suitable solution. Encourages creativity.
Used when there is no correct outcome, time is not a restriction and performances are experienced which allows them to draw on their knowledge. Guidance Methods... Verbal = Explanations.
Visual = Demonstrations.
Manual = Supporting a Handstand.
Mechanical = Using a Harness. Applied Physiology (Q7) 1) Fitness Testing
2) Principles of Training
3) Training Intensities
4) Training Methods 1) Fitness Testing... Speed = 30m Sprint Test... From a 1m flying start it is the time taken to cover the 30m distance. Human error, running surface and weather and not sport specific. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Strength = Hand Grip Test... Having adjusted grip to hand size the performer then holds it in one hand at shoulder height. They then bring it down to their side whilst squeezing. Errors in adjusting can effect results, only an indication. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Balance = Stork Test... Stand comfortably on one foot with one leg on the inside of the other and then tiptoe and keep balanced as long as possible. Not sport specific. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Flexibility = Sit + Reach Test... Sitting in a flat position and slowly reach forward and push the counter along and hold for two seconds. Only measures flexibility of the lower back and hammies, Warm up can effect results and limb length Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Power = Standing Broad Test... Subject jumps as far as possible horizontally with both feet kept together. Only tests leg power and heavily dependent on technique. Quick and Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Agility = Illinois Agility Test... Subject lies face down and on a signal they move onto their feet and does the course as quick as they can. Human error, running surface and weather and not sport specific. Easy testing procedure, little equipment and lots of data to compare against. Coordination = Alternative Ball Toss Test... Throwing a ball from one arm to the other against a wall for 30 seconds. Can be effected by how hard or strait the ball was thrown. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Muscular Endurance = NCF Abdominal Conditioning Test... Following the instructions on the CD and complete sit ups in the beeps. Relies of motivation, difficult to monitor technique and dangerous. Easy testing procedure, little equipment and good for large groups. Reaction Time = Ruler Drop Test... Does what it says on the tin. Not sport specific. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Stamina = Multi-stage Fitness Test... Running 20m in the beeps from the CD Only a prediction of VO2max, Based on performers motivation and not sports specific. Easy testing procedure and little equipment. Why??? Monitor progress
Identify strengths and weaknesses
Provides information for training programms. Limitations... Not sports specific
Many tests are just predictions
Many tests do not recreate sporting environments. 2) Principles of Training... SPORT... S = Specificity = All training undertaken should be relevant to the performer
P = Progression = Training should be gradually increasing intensity
O = Overload = In order to adapt the body must be put under stress.
R = Reversibility = Use it or Lose it.
T = Tedium = Preventing boredom. FITT... F = Frequency = The number of training sessions per week.
I = Intensity = The physical demands of the training.
T = Type = The method of training used e.g. Fartlek, Continuous, Interval or Circuit.
T = Time = The duration of each training session. WIMP... W = Warm up = Should consist of a Pulse Raiser, Stretching and a Skill Related Practice.
I = Individualization = Each session should be tailor made to suit performer. Considering Age, Sex, Gender and Injuries.
M = Moderation = Ensuring rest days are built into training programme.
P = Periodisation = Chunking training into Macro-cycles, Meso-cycles and Micro-cycles. 3) Measuring Training Intensities... Use HR = (220 - Age) to find out training zones which are...
Level 1 = Fat burning = 50-60%
Level 2 = Lower Aerobic = 60-70%
Level 3 = Upper Aerobic = 70-80%
Level 4 = Anaerobic Threshold = 80-90%
Level 5 = Anaerobic = 90-95%
Level 6 = Lactic = 95-100% 1. Heart Rate - (Used for measuring intensity of all four training methods) 2.Use % of your REP Max To find the 1 REP Max you need to find the heaviest weight that your muscle can lift only once.
If your doing weight training (Improving Strength) you should be lifting 85% of 1 REP Max and doing low reps.
If your doing weight training (Improving Muscular Endurance) you should be lifting 50% of 1 REP Max and doing high reps. 3. The Borg Scale The perceived rate of exertion scale from 6-20. For any training to be beneficial overload should occur so you should be rating the training as hard.
Pros = quick measure, inexpensive and doesn't require specialist equipment.
Cons = reliability can be questioned. 4) Training Methods... Continuous Training... Low intensity meaning less chance of injury, easy to follow and time efficient.
Can be boring, athletes may need to train at higher intensities and may not be sport specific. Low intensity exercise for a long period of time.
Improves Stamina and Muscular Endurance
E.g. 6 mile run at 65% HR Max Plyometrics Training... Excellent method to develop power and can be sport specific.
Injury risk is very high meaning appropriate technique is paramount. Eccentric muscle contraction followed by and explosive concentric contraction.
Improves Strength, Power + Speed PNF Training... Stretching technique that inhibits the stretch reflex that occurs when a muscle is stretched to its limit.
Improves Flexibility. Excellent method to develop flexibility. Injury risk is very high meaning appropriate technique is paramount and need a partner. Circuit Training... Variety of exercises and can be sport specific. Specific exercises created to improve speed, agility and power Requires specialist equipment. Warm Up + Cool Down... Warm ups should consist of...
The pulse raiser = 5-10 min jog of increasing intensity. Aims to Increase HR, Increase Body Temperature and Vascular Shunt blood towards the skeletal muscles.
Stretching = Take muscle through the full range of movement, held for 15 second. Could include Active stretches (performed by self) or Passive stretches (partner assisted). Could be Static (standing still), Ballistic (powerful, fast stretching movements) or Dynamic (controlled, slow, moving stretches e.g. lunges)
Skill Practice = Improve coordination. Reasons for warm up... Improves O2 delivery to the muscles due to an increase of HR and Vasodilation.
Increase in venous return.
Increased temp so increased contracility as nerve impulses are quicker and elesticity of muscles, incresed blood flow and enzyme activity.
Reduces muscle soreness. Reasons for a Cool Down... Heart rate and breathing rate remains high as does vasodilation - flush through oxygenated blood and reduces lactic acid effects (muscle soreness)
Maintains venous return - don't become dizzy. 1. Concepts of Physical Education... Play = engaging in an activity for personal amusements - usually children.
Recreation = activities usually carried out during leisure time and mainly for personal gain.
Leisure = free time to pursue activities that will enhance quality of life.
Sport = a competitive and institutionalized physical activity.
Physical Education = learning through the physical.
Outdoor and Adventure =
Outdoor recreation - the undertaking in natural environment.
Adventurous - the same but with an element of risk.
Outdoor or Adventure - learning in a risk controlled environment. Play... Done for enjoyment/fun.
Done for social reasons.
Little commitment needed.
Freedom of choice/time/structure.
Has intrinsic values. Socialization.
Health + Fitness = less strain on NHS.
Children master the adult world.
Adults escape reality. Leisure + Recreation... Something engaged during free time.
Take part in freely chosen activities.
Relaxation and release of stress.
Done for enjoyment. Refresh body and mind.
Recreate oneself - being creative, engaging in activities for self fulfillment. Leisure... Recreation... Individuals... Stress relief
Enjoyment Society... Increase fitness therefore reducing strain on NHS
Creates Jobs Sport.... Competitive e.g. Leagues.
Set rules - regulated by governing bodies.
Tactical and Strategic. Individuals... Health
Skills are useful in life
Sports a boom industry Society... Health + Fitness
Skills are useful in life
Pride in self and community. Obsessive
Deviance to win
Most people watch and don't play
Lombardian Ethic = Win at ALL cost Most popular sports gain most publicity
Media encourage us to be non-active
Deviance is highlighted by media Physical Education... Aims...
Teach specific skills e.g. Motor
Fitness - Physical development
Knowledge - Rules
Values - Sportsmanship
Taught through the national curriculum Differences from Play, Recreation + Leisure...
Lacks Choice - Its compulsory
Educational aspect is formalized
Teach activity - specific skills
Authority figure is in control
Sports coach Gives children confidence and grows self-esteem
Creativity + Expressiveness Outdoor and Adventure... Involving crucial decision making
Risk + Danger
Not banned by rules
A way of escapism
Relies heavily on the self + others Subjective Danger Objective Danger Totally Avoidable Totally Unavoidable Experience, Personality Mortlock's Risk Continuum... Perceived Risk...
A potential risk in which an individual is aware of. Actual/Real Risk...
Unpredictable Environment. 2. Development of Physical Education... 19th - Present Day Public Schools...
Upper class (Private, Independent, fee paying schools)
Aiming to educate the future leaders in society as leader roles.
It became clear that Public schools were not developing leaders
Popular recreation was introduces meaning Mob games were replaced by Rational Recreation/Sport
This was aided by Muscular Christianity. Muscular Christianity... The church had major influence on the development of rational sports.
Christian headmasters wanted to encourage a moral, spiritual and social education.
Give them responsibility and gain skills needed to lead others futures. (Social Control)
Sport would promote leadership, fair play, courage, bravery + decision making. Social Change...
Industrial Revolution = moved from rural to urban.
Working class was formed
Middle class formed from a new generation of managers
Public Schools increased due to the new wealth
New tone of discipline
Brought about morality
Brought Law and order to society
Improvements to health Characteristics of Popular Recreation... Violence
No team size
No time limitations
Occasionally played Characteristics of Rational Recreation... Physical prowess
Codes of conduct
Timing and sizes of games
Tactics become important Upper Class
Muscular Christianity... Morals Rational Sports Basic subjects Lower/Working Class
Elementary Education Basic Subjects Maths and Literacy Physical Training Model Course... 1902 1933 Physical Training... Physical Training... 1904 - 1933 Moving + Growing... 1953 National Curriculum... 1990's Lasted 2 years
Military drill styled exercises
Taught by officers
Command/Obey styled lessons
Only equipment was sticks representing weapons. This is where teachers were given prescriptive syllabus to follow.
Similar to drill but without military teachers.
Still teaching to be obedient. More free movement, creativity and group work
Encouraged to use their imagination more
Focus on development of skills
Teacher - Student Integration Produced by education development
Equipment was brought to encourage problem solving
Physical education is nor being used more
Teaching turned to more guidance over they obey style. More centralized
6 areas of study - swimming, athletics, Dance, Outdoor rec, Gymnastics + Games Invasion
Striking + Fielding 4.Sports Agencies... 1.Youth Sports Trust...
give every child a sporting start in life through high quality PE and sport in primary schools;
Ensure all young people have a sporting chance by developing opportunities for those with special educational needs and disabilities; and
support all young people to achieve their sporting best in school and their personal best in life. 2. Sport England...
Help more people have a sporting habit for life
Create more opportunities for young people to play sport
Nurture and develop talent
Provide the right facilities in the right places
Support local authorities and unlock local funding
Ensure real opportunities for communities 3.Governing Bodies...
The regulatory bodies that decide where funding goes when received through whole sport plans. Health of nation
Feel good factor
Hosting major events Sports Colleges... 350 of them in the UK
Providing opportunities for community
Provide high quality PE + Sports to feeder schools. School Sports Coordinators... Controlled by Youth Sports Trust
Promotes sports in their pyramid
Time off Timetable to visit their feeder schools
Provide specialist help to Non Qualified Teachers TOPS Programs... Top Tots - 18m - 3yrs
Top Start - 3yrs - 5yrs
Top Play - 5yrs - 9yrs
Top Sport - 9yrs - 11yrs
Top Skill - 11yrs - 14yrs
Top Live - 14yrs - 18yrs 5. Potential Barriers... Social Exclusion - e.g. Ethnic background, youth, female, age, disability, low income, demographics.
Attitudes - e.g. Sterotyping, lack of confidence, self motivation, cultural norms, too competitive.
Access - e.g. Facilities, times, transport, lack of information, fees, lifestyle, health, socio-economic status.
Program - e.g. Range, inappropriate for ability, delivery style, not enough fun.
Ethnic Preferences - e.g. running/jogging for black other and black africans
Sexism - e.g. belief that one sex is inferior to another.