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LGBTQ Presentation- Sociocultural Course

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Jasmine Jenkins

on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of LGBTQ Presentation- Sociocultural Course

Not so fun Facts

“More than 94% of LGBT adults report hate crime victimization (Herek, Cogan, & Gillis, 2002)”

“Sexual assaults in adulthood were reported by 12% of gay men and 13% of bisexual men, compared to 2% of heterosexual men."

"Among women, the rates of sexual assault were 16% for lesbians, 17% for bisexual women, and 8% for heterosexual women (Balsam, Rothblum, & Beauchaine, 2005).”

“Transgender individuals face being viewed as mentally ill, delusional, or self-destructive not only by the public, but also by mental health workers (Mizock & Fleming, 2011).”

“LGBT individuals also face microaggressions that invalidate their sexual orientation, including the common use of language and terms that demonstrate heteronormality and heterosexual privilege (Smith, Shin, & Officer, 2011)."

"18% of the transgender population are HIV positive. Only 5% of people in subsaharan Africa are HIV positive."
LGBTQ Couples and Families
Strengths of LGBTQ Individuals
The Don'ts of Counseling LQBTQ Individuals
Implications for Clinical Practice
1. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling lgbt individuals. In Counseling the Culturally Diverse (6th ed., pp. 473-484). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

2. Ryan, C., Russel, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of lgbt young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205-213.

3. Farmer, L. B., Welfare, L. E., & Burge, P. L. (2013). Counselor competence with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients: Differences among practice settings. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 41, 194-209. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1912.2013.00036.x

4. Rutherford, K., McIntyre, J., Daley, A., & Ross, L. E. (2012). Development of expertise in mental health service provision for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Medical Education, 46, 903-913. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04272.x

5. Gay and lesbian drug and alcohol treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pride-institute.com/programs/lgbt-treatment/lgbt-drug-abuse/
Assuming that a client is heterosexual
, thereby making it harder to bring up issues regarding sexual orientation.
Believing that same-sex orientation is sinful or a form of mental illness.
3. Failing to understand that a client's problem, such as depression or “low self-esteem, can be a
result of experiences with discrimination or internalization of society's view of homosexuality.
Focusing on sexual orientation when it is not relevant
. Problems may be completely unrelated to sexual orientation, but some therapists continue to focus on this topic.
Attempting to have clients renounce or change their sexual orientation
. For example, a lesbian was asked by the therapist to date men.
Trivializing or demeaning homosexuality
. A therapist responded to a lesbian who brought up that she was “into women” that he didn't care, since he had a client who was “into dogs.”
Lacking an understanding of identity development
in lesbian women and gay men, or viewing homosexuality solely as sexual activity.
Not understanding the impact of possible internalized negative societal pressures or homophobia on identity development.
Underestimating the consequences of “coming out” for the client
, and making the suggestion to come out without careful discussion of the pros and cons of this disclosure.
Misunderstanding or underestimating the importance of intimate relationships
for gay men and lesbians. One therapist reportedly advised a lesbian couple who were having problems in their relationship to not consider it a permanent relationship[…]”
“1. Examine your own views regarding heterosexuality, and determine their impact on work with LGBT clients. Understand heterosexual and cisgender privilege. A way to personalize this perspective is to assume that some of your family, friends, or coworkers may be LGBT.

2. Read the “Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation”
“(American Psychological Association, 2009b), “Report of the APA Task Force on Gender Identity and Gender Variance” (American Psychological Association, 2009c), and ALGBTIC's “Competencies for Counseling Transgender Clients” (Burnes et al., 2009).

3. Develop partnerships, consultation, or collaborative efforts with local and national LGBT organizations.

4. Ensure that your intake forms, interview procedures, and language are free of heterosexist bias and include a question on sexual behavior, attraction, or orientation. Be aware that LGBT clients may have specific concerns regarding confidentiality.

5. Do not assume that presenting problems are necessarily the result of sexual orientation. Typical presenting problems include relationship difficulties, self-esteem issues, depression, and anxiety (Lyons, Bieschke, Dendy, Worthington, & Georgemiller, 2010). Societal issues may or may not play a role in these problems.

6. Remember that mental health issues may result from stress due to prejudice and discrimination; internalized homophobia; the coming-out process; a lack of family, peer, school, or community support; being a victim of sexual or other physical assault; suicidal ideation or attempts; and substance abuse. Ethnic minority LGBT individuals may be dealing with rejection from their ethnic communities as well as marginalization within the gay community.

8. Assess spiritual and religious needs. Many LGBT individuals have a strong religious faith but encounter exclusion. Religious support is available. For example, for individuals of the Christian faith, the Fellowship United Methodist Church accepts all types of diversity and is open to gay congregation members. LGBT individuals who have strong religious beliefs but who belong to a nonaffirming church can explore different options, such as joining an affirming religious group or more liberal sects of their own religion or developing their own definitions of what it means to be gay or religious (Sherry, Adelman, Whilde, & Quick, 2010). It is much easier to adapt to a different religious group than to change one's sexual orientation (Haldeman, 2010).

12. A number of therapeutic strategies can be useful with internalized homophobia, prejudice, and discrimination. They can include identifying and correcting cognitive distortions, coping skills training, assertiveness training and utilizing social supports. It can be helpful to ask questions such as, “Have you had incidences where you thought you were treated differently because you are a sexual minority person?” (Kashubeck-West, Szymanski, & Meyer, 2008, p. 617). Help LGBT clients identify[…]”
“Queer people of color not only survive experiences of oppression, they develop resilience and coping skills in the process. (Singh & Chun, 2010, p. 38)”

“Many cite positive aspects of being a lesbian or a gay man, such as belonging to a supportive community, being able to create families of choice, serving as positive role models, living authentically, being involved in social justice and activism, and freedom from gender-specific roles (Riggle et al., 2008). ”

Counseling LGBTQIQA Individuals

Jasmine Jenkins & Coco Shin
Gender and Sexual Identities
The Majority
*The term hermaphrodite is outdated term that has fallen out of use.

Intersex is the preferred term
Internalized Homophobia
For clients still dealing with internalized homosexuality, it may helpful to focus on helping them establish a new affirming identity. Many LGBT individuals avoid discrimination by assuming a heterosexual identity and avoiding the issue of sexuality with others, whereas others are able to reveal their true identity. The consequences of each of these reactions need to be considered both from individual and societal perspectives.
Because many LGBT clients have internalized the societal belief that they cannot have long-lasting relationships,
have materials available that portray healthy and satisfying LGBT relationships

Realize that
LGBT couples may have problems similar to those of their heterosexual counterparts
but may also display unique concerns, such as differences in the degree of comfort with public demonstrations of their relationship or reactions from their family of origin.

Counseling Implications
Counseling Implications
Defense of Marriage Act

Signed by President Clinton in 1996

Section 3 repealed after the United States vs. Windsor case
“Research findings indicate that children raised by LGBT couples are as mentally healthy as children with heterosexual parents and that there is no reason to believe that a heterosexual family structure is necessary for healthy child development.”
Substance Abuse
"Studies indicate that, when compared with the mainstream (heterosexual) population, LGBT people are more likely to use drugs, have higher rates of substance abuse, and are more likely to continue drug abuse into later life. Although LGBT people have been shown to use all types of drugs, certain drugs appear to be more popular in the LGBT community than in the mainstream community." - Pride Institute
What is the connection between anal sex and substance abuse?
Recognize that a large number of LGBT clients have been subject to hate crimes as well as ongoing microaggressions. Depression, anger, post-traumatic stress, and self-blame may result. These conditions need to be assessed and treated.
Counseling Implications
“Forty percent of LGBT students reported being physically harassed, and nearly 19% had been physically assaulted in school because of their sexual orientation; 53% were exposed to cyberbullying through text messages, e-mails, and Internet postings on social networking sites such as Facebook. ”
Family Relationships
Latino, immigrant, religious, and low SES families appear to be less accepting, on average, of LGBT adolescents.
Acceptance in adolescence is associated with young adult positive health outcomes (self esteem, social support, and general health) and is protective for negative health outcomes (depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and attempts).
Ask LGBT adolescents and youth who are questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity about how their family, caregivers, or foster family reacts to their identity.
Provide supportive counseling, as needed, and connect youth with LGBT community resources and programs.
With youth's consent, help families identify supportive behaviors.
Always support the youth's preferences.
8-11 - The average age of first awareness of sexual orientation
15-17 - The average age of identifying as LGB
*It is imperative for you to have LGBT competence if you are going into school counseling.

You think you know...
But you have no idea.
Counselors perceive themselves as most competent in their affirming attitudes toward LGB clients....

but least competent in their skills to work with them.
*Do not take for granted the importance of developing knowledge and skills!
"Coming out to parents and friends can lead to rejection, anger and grief. About two thirds come out to their mothers, about one third come to fathers, and 42% come out to both parents." (Savin-WIlliams, 2001)
Coming Out
The times, they are a'changin
Domestic Violence
Rates are higher in LGBT community than in the general population.
Many times goes unreported.
Violence against transgender individuals is extremely high.
party drugs (ecstasy, ketamine, and GHB) .

The use of crystal methamphetamine in gay and bisexual men has increased dramatically in recent years.
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