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Ch 19.1 Progressive Movements, Progressive Politics

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Ben Hemsley

on 21 February 2016

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Transcript of Ch 19.1 Progressive Movements, Progressive Politics

Progressive Movements, Progressive Politics
Chapter 19
19.1
Period 6
But first...
STOP AND REVIEW
Review chapter 18 with some review videos so you are VERY clear with what happened as a result of the Gilded Age. This next lecture will make more sense if you've reviewed.
#1
- Skip to 3:59
#2 - From the start
do both!
Gilded age
Immigration ect.
trusts, ect
They often cover other perspectives or more parts to what we are currently studying.
Chapter Objective
Demonstrate an understanding of the many ideas that were labeled progressive and the impact of those ideas on the life of the United States
Be sure you understand all of the concepts covered in 18.2 and 18.3
Learning Objective 19.1

Explain the role of muckraking journalists and intellectuals in shaping a progressive era
Theodore Roosevelt
26th Prez
VP to McKinley
Prez 1901
Republican
Progressive
1912
advocate of the outdoors, a "trustbuster" and a conservationist
Symbolizes the Progressive Movement
"The Progressive Party of 1912 was an American political party. It was formed by former President Theodore Roosevelt. The party also became known as the Bull Moose Party after journalists quoted Roosevelt saying "I'm feeling like a bull moose" shortly after the new party was formed."
What is the Progressive Era/Party?
But let's back it up a little...
The Gilded Age brought extraordinary changes to American life
immigration
urbanization
rapid industrialization
Intellectuals, upper-class reformers, newspaper reporters, ministers, writers, begin to weigh in on new ways of ordering economic and political life.
IE: how to cope
(Europeans experienced similar, just a bit earlier)
*
* Very troubled by Railroad strike of 1877
* Felt that there were benefits of industrialization
but the result, he said "[f]rom all parts of the
civilized world come complaints... of want
and suffering and anxiety among the working classes"
* Proposed a 100% tax on any increase in the value of land or any rents on land.
Felt that this would reduce the value and cost of land, thus allowing workers to turn to farming if they wished.
Result: a labor shortage that would inevitably raise wages and improve factory conditions.
Started the "Single Tax Movement"
Single Tax Movement
Was designed to keep property values low and therefore limit the accumulation of wealth while spreading opportunity more broadly in society
1888
* Describes a perfect society in which class and class warfare had disappeared in a country of prosperous citizens ho enjoyed their lives free of poverty or wealth
bonus: envisioned a society free of lawyers and politicians
1891
* Describes a country rigidly divided between a large working class living brutal lives and a small, comfortable elite.
* work of fiction that resonated greatly
* In the story, few are able to escape and start a new community organized around the platforms of the Greenback party (18.3), the Knights of Labor (18.3) and the Farmer's Alliance (18.2)
Can these places be real?
Can these conditions exist in American Society?
Utopia
[yoo-toh-pee-uh]

noun

1. an ideal place or state.

2. any visionary system of political or social perfection.
an imaginary island described in Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516) as enjoying perfection in law, politics, etc.
ORIGIN
*Not Pointless
Gave ideas to other reformers!
Science Fiction often leads to SCIENCE
Where do you think the idea of cell phones even came from?
<3
*
#1. Idealists
The Professors
John Dewey
Mostly remembered for his thoughts on education
but his goal was a wider response to industrialization
Traveled across the country during the Pullman Railroad Strike (18.3). Highly influential!
* was strongly supported in New York City
IRONY
Caused him to consider challenging the long held idea of Social Darwinism
Saw SD as unethical justifications for privilege.
Felt that the wealthy and wise should intervene and make the economy more just.
Social Darwinism
The application of Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution to society, holding that the fittest and the wealthiest should thrive and lead, the weak and the poor "deserve" their fate, and government action is unable to alter this "natural" process.
CURRENT EVENT: What political party MIGHT agree with the light application of Social Darwinism in today's society?
IE: The rich and wealthy should be the dominant members of society and the rest ought be laborers and employees. Any government interference here would destabilize the economy and destabilize the nation.
Philosophical stance
Richard Ely
Also influenced by the Pullman Strike
The workers were simply afraid of him, felt
he might be a spy

He called the culture of the town of Pullman "Benevolent, well-wishing Feudalism"

Was developing an economic theory that called for the government to intervene directly in economic affairs of the country

Economic Stance
but he was opposed to the idea of 100% government intervention
Albion Small
Helped to build the field of Sociology
(the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relations, institutions, etc.)
Felt that sociologists did not just study society, but rather worked to reform it.
wrote that "action, not speculation, is the
supreme teacher"
Muckraking Journalists
Banner headlines
Comic Strips
*Investigative Journalism
Newspapers change in the late 1800s
Purchased by J. Pulitzer 1887
Made it the largest circulation
paper n the US thanks to these
innovations. Big news included an
expose on the Equitable Life Assurance Society, which they claimed were "gambling with people's money"
New York Evening World
(Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Journalism)
Muckrakers
Investigative Journalists became known as
Journalism that exposes economic, social, and political evils, term coined by T. Roosevelt for its "raking of muck" from the bottom of American Society
Politicians beware!
Businesses beware!
...no one is safe from
MUCKRAKING
Your
Career
I like synthesis, yes I do!
I like synthesis, how about you...
CHRIS CHRISTIE?
2014 "bridgegate"
Teddy Roosevelt hated muckrakers as he felt they described problems but did not offer solutions.
Is it the job of a journalist to offer solutions, or to report issues, or both?
Examples of 1800s muckraking...
Henry Demarest Lloyd*
1881: Expose of Standard Oil Company
helps lead to 1911 breakup of SO
1884
1884: denounced Monopolies as threats to
everyday people
*Grandaddy of all muckrakers
Randolph Hearst
Starts: San Francisco Examiner, New York Morning Journal
Competitor: Pulitzer
Included articles by journalist Ida M. Tarbell on the Standard Oil Company, Ray Stannard Baker's report of visiting striking coal miners, and a report by Lincoln Steffens on a Mayor in Minneapolis who got rich from payments from opium dens.

* Worked in Chicago's slaughter houses as a reporter on the meatpacking industry
* confronted workers suffering from injuries, inhumane treatment of animals, unsanitary conditions
*Published this expose in 1906
Public response was overwhelming, public consumption of meat went down, congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act regulating industries
*Later stated "I aimed at the public's heart and by accident I hit the stomach"

I SEE CONTEXT. WOOP DE DOO!
I SEE CONTEXT, HOW ABOUT YOU?
"Here was a population, low-class and mostly foreign, hanging always on the verge of starvation, and dependent for its opportunities of life upon the whim of men every bit as brutal and unscrupulous as the old-time slave drivers; under such circumstances immorality was exactly as inevitable, and as prevalent, as it was under the system of chattel slavery. Things that were quite unspeakable went on there in the packing houses all the time, and were taken for granted by everybody; only they did not show, as in the old slavery times, because there was no difference in color between master and slave."
- The Jungle, p. 109
How does this quote relate to the working conditions created by large companies such as Carnegie Steel or Standard Oil during the Gilded Age?
I SEE SYNTHESIS. WOOP DE DOO!
I SEE SYNTHESIS, HOW ABOUT YOU?
"Here was a population, low-class and mostly foreign, hanging always on the verge of starvation, and dependent for its opportunities of life upon the whim of men every bit as brutal and unscrupulous as the old-time slave drivers; under such circumstances immorality was exactly as inevitable, and as prevalent, as it was under the system of chattel slavery. Things that were quite unspeakable went on there in the packing houses all the time, and were taken for granted by everybody; only they did not show, as in the old slavery times, because there was no difference in color between master and slave."
- The Jungle, p. 109
What other (non american) philosophers were discussing the burdensome reality of the worker in an unregulated capitalist society?
OMGOODNESS
1. 1848
2. Germany
Synthesis
Context
"the Jungle"
Gilded Age
unrestricted
capitalism
USA, the Gilded Age
unrestricted capitalism
"The Jungle"

USA
USA
1848, Germany,
unrestricted capitalism
"The Communist Manifesto"
ALL UR TIME
ARE BELONG TO ME
The Progressive Era, however was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Question!
Which was more important to launching the Progressive movement: the theory behind it or the identification of specific problems. Why?
USE EVIDENCE
and now I leave you with a cartoon!
Full transcript