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Rome: Entertainment, Leisure, and Food and Drink

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Fran W-A

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Rome: Entertainment, Leisure, and Food and Drink

The Baths
"Not rude to be nude"
Leisure Centers
There are as many as 900 baths throughout Rome
Ancient Rome:
Entertainment, Leisure, and Food and Drink

Food and Drink
In Caesar's time, Roman food and drink was very unique. Many Roman dishes seem strange by comparison to modern meals, since the Romans' combination of ingredients and foods is unpopular in North America today. There is certainly a lot to learn about the culture of traditional Ancient Roman food.
Meals Of The Wealthy
Wealthy Romans ate much better than those of a lower class. In fact, poor Romans considered the wealthy to be greedy and selfish, since they often wasted expensive food at extravagant dinner parties.
Theatre
While the Colosseum was major many well educated Romans were disgusted at the bloodshed and violence. These people went to the theater for their entertainment. Although the theater rarely put on shows and plays they also had poetry readings too.
The different forms of entertainment differed over their education. Entertainment in Rome was a very serious part and were not taken lightly.
Colosseum

Dinner Parties
Status within the class
"Put out your party best"
Table Ware
Board Games
Mancala
Terni Lapilli
Latrunculi
Tesserae
Gambling
Although gambling was forbidden other than in chariot races it was never followed and people still did it anyways. The dice was called tessarae and are used for gambling. The penalty of gambling was that you could be jailed or fined if you were ever caught.
Circus Maximus
The Circus Maximus was home to the chariot races and was an event for the whole family.This was very specific to Rome, and it could hold up to 250 000 people. In the present day now a road runs down one length of the track, while the other can still be seen.
Wrestling and boxing were popular at that time and were held at the palaestra which was the centre of the roman baths. This sport helped build strength, stamina and overall fitness. It was a favorite to most Romans and since back then they didn't have boxing gloves so they wrapped their hands in cloths.
The amount of time a Roman had for leisure differed depending on the social class they belonged to.
Wrestling and Boxing
Oberhausen, Emmanuel. The Roman Bath. 1985. Ocean’s Bridge. Ocean’s Bridge Photo Gallery. Painting. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.
Brown, Shelby. Reclining in the Roman Triclinium. 2010. The J. Paul Getty Trust. The Getty Iris. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.



Wiener, Malcolm. Spoon and Fork. 2006. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.
Pierpont, Morgan. Scyphos. 1917. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.
Pierpont, Morgan. Couch and Footstool with Bone Carvings and Glass Inlays. 1917. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.
Pierpont, Morgan. Plate. 1917. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.


Fund, Rogers. Simpulum. 1988. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013
Fund, Rogers. Tivoli Hoard. 1985. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.
Common Foods In Ancient Rome:
To Love or Not to Love?
Although the rich and the poor were distinct and separate social classes in Caesar's time, there were some foods and ingredients which bonded them.
How Were Meals of the Rich and Poor Similar?
Sauces
The Romans enjoyed strong foods, and this is evident in their most popular sauce choice--"garum".

What is Garum?
A combination of salt, herbs, and and fish innards that is spread over foods that have already spoiled, in order to hide their foul taste.
Loved by the Romans and used frequently on foods
Garum had such a strong smell that the places which produced the sauce were built far away from each other, so that the scent would not be too overwhelming
Herbs and Spices
Several seasonings were used in Roman cooking to disguise blandness, or even bad taste. Hence, the more seasoning, the better!

Which Herbs and Spices Were Used?
Some of the most popular leafy herbs in Roman cooking included thyme, parsley, oregano, lovage, coriander, bay leaf, and fennel
Pepper was a a common seasoning for food
If they could afford it, the Romans also incorporated onion, garlic, and honey into their seasonings
Preservation
The Ancient Romans were not completely experienced at preserving food, so they were required to experiment with different methods.

How was Food Preserved?
Methods of preserving food included:
Pickling
Drying
Smoking
Salting
In or Out:
Foods That Were Available
Some foods were especially common to the Romans, while others had not been discovered yet! In about 45 B.C., there were not extensive options for food that the rich and poor could both enjoy.

What was In? What was Out?
Dormice were eaten by the rich and poor, though the rich created fancier variations of this food.
Bread was popular for the rich and the poor
Celery was common in both rich and poor dishes
Potatoes and tomatoes had not yet been discovered, so these vegetables were not an option for the Ancient Romans
Service
Rich Roman families did not rely on themselves to prepare meals or cook: they had their own slaves and workers to do this for them. The trained cooks who were appointed by the wealthy were expected to cook skillfully and tastefully, since the wealthy loved to experiment with new foods and flavours.
Common Foods
The wealthy enjoyed foods that were more expensive, as well as more difficult to find and prepare. At a banquet with about seven or eight lavish dinner courses, some of these foods included:
Various meats
Large snails
Cakes with honey
Recording Meals
Since the wealthy took pride in the meals that they ate, some rich Romans recorded the food that their servants prepared for them. Since cooks were required to create several variations of expensive dishes using different spices or ingredients, the wealthy wrote down which meals were their favourites.

One well-loved wealthy Roman man, Marcus Gavius Apicius, wrote his own collection of favourite recipes. His accounts, and the recordings of other wealthy Romans, contribute to a deeper understanding of Roman meals.
During banquets and special occasions, the wealthy ate food with their hands, then, servants were responsible to provide a clean towel and a bowl of water.
Meals of the Poor
Poorer Romans led simpler lifestyles than those of the wealthy. The foods that poor Romans ate were generally less nutritious than the foods for the wealthy.
The Roman Banquet
The wealthy especially enjoyed exquisite banquets with entertainment, fancy food, and several guests. Food was very extravagant at the banquets. Hors d'ouevres, a main meal, and dessert were served within seven or eight courses. Some of the common foods served at a prestigious celebration included:
Lark tonque
Peacock brains
Dormice with honey and poppyseeds
Songbirds with asparagus
Sow's udders
Sea urchins
Wasting Food
During banquets and special events, the wealthy would organize a grand meal, which would last for several hours. Rich Romans considered wasting expensive food to be pristine, so they often did waste what they had prepared.

During banquets in a wealthy host's home, a vomitorium was a special room set aside for guests. Once they had filled their stomachs, guests used the vomitorium to start all over again.
Kitchen Struggles
Life in the kitchen was not always easy for the poorest of Romans. Many could not afford to purchase or maintain a kitchen in their home, so rather than use expensive kitchen tools, poor household used pots filled with charcoal to heat their food, almost like a barbeque. When the pots resulted in house fires, the poor began to purchase food outside of their homes.
At the Popina
The typical poor Roman's diet consisted of many starches. Bread was especially a favourite to buy from popinas (small shops selling food on the streets of Rome) because it was hot, filling, and inexpensive. The poor made use of their local popina, since hot or cold food such as soups or bean stews were sold at affordable prices.
What Did the Poor Eat?
Unlike the wealthy, the poor were limited by cost to the foods that they could eat. There were no special pastries and few meats in poorer households. In addition to bread and stews, some popular dishes for the poor included:
Barley gruel
Boiled sheep's head
Lentils
Porridge
Working in the Kitchen
With all the unique and cultural food, there must be somewhere to prepare it! The kitchen was common mainly in wealthy Roman homes, though there were some kitchen tools that every household needed.
A Hole in The Wall
For safety purposes, every kitchen required a hole in the wall. There was no system of ventilation in Roman kitchens, therefore, smoke escaped through this hole to reduce fumes and prevent fires.
A Knife is a Necessity
Rich or poor, a skilled Roman cook required a knife in their kitchen to work with meat.
The Special Spoon
Wooden spoons were very popular for Roman cooking. This tool was important for any meal, whether it was a banquet or a light lunch.
Glass-Tastic
Before glass, the Romans worked with pottery, which was difficult to clean, and bronze, which tainted specific foods. Glass jugs were also effective to transfer and trade liquids, and store food.
Drinks in Ancient Rome
Wine was the most popular beverage in Julius Caesar's time. It was not served only at banquets or special occasions, but at most meals.
What About Water?
Water was not as common as wine, and it was also not very popular. If a guest drank water at a dinner party, this was considered as a direct insult to the host.
The taste of Ancient Roman wine is unknown
Historians predict that Roman wine was light in colour, since it was diluted with water
Roman records describe wine to be a variety of colours, including black, red, white, and yellow
Mealtimes
There were three main meals that the Ancient Romans ate daily: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Each was unique, since they were eaten at different times of the day, and in different portions.
Breakfast
Began before dawn as an early start to the day
Breakfast was a light snack, and never too filling
Breakfast food options included a small portion of bread, fresh fruit (such as figs or grapes), or olives
Required more preparation than breakfast, though it was similarly a light meal
Mainly a cold meal
Boiled eggs, bacon or sausage, and a bowl of figs is a good example of a typical lunch in Caesar's time: not excessive, though still filling enough to continue the day
Lunch
The main and most filling meal of the day
Took place around three o'clock in the afternoon, and usually lasted for several hours
This was the busiest meal for cooks, since it required the most preparation
Let's Play!
Leisure
Entertainment
Edgar, David. Baths of Caracalla. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Photograph. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.


Roman Bathhouse Still in Use After 2000 Years
Edward Lewis
14th Century Earthquake
Social Atmosphere
A Day at the Baths of Caracalla
Entrance
Palaestra
Apodyterium
Tepidarium
Caldarium
Frigidarium
Lewis, Edward. A Day at the Baths of Caracalla. 2013. BBC News. BBC Photo Gallery. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.



Bronnikov, Fyodor. The Roman Baths. 2008. Painting. Wikipedia. Web. 21 Oct 2013.
Caracalla". Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
Lewis, Edward. A Day at the Baths of Caracalla. 2013. BBC News. BBC Photo Gallery. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.



Lewis, Edward. A Day at the Baths of Caracalla. 2013. BBC News. BBC Photo Gallery. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.



Lewis, Edward. A Day at the Baths of Caracalla. 2013. BBC News. BBC Photo Gallery. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.


.
Casale, Villa. Palaestra. 400 A.D. PBS. PBS Photo Gallery. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.


PBS. Apodyterium. 2000. PBS. PBS Photo Gallery. Photograph. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
PBS. Tepidarium. 2000. PBS. PBS Photo Gallery. Photograph. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
Strickland, Doug. Cabin Fireplace. 2008. Fine Art America. Fine Art America Photo Gallery. Photograph. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
This form of entertainment was cruel and involved bloodshed animal cruelty and much more. The Colosseum was open to everyone and held many different events such as naval battles, which involved them to flood the Colosseum, animal circus acts, animal versus animal fights, animal hunts and of course the most famous the gladiators. The day the Colosseum opened 5000 animals were killed. Also in gladiator fights when the victor had his opponent pinned down a thumbs up meant to spare his life and a thumbs down meant to end it.
Ready?
Set?
Shutterstock. A Dinner Invitation. 2009. Graphic. Ancient Rome: Navigators, New York. Print.
11 Oct 2013.
Jillianson, J. Relax and Enjoy. 2009. Painting. Alamy Images, New York. Web. 11 Oct 2013.
Graham, Christi, and Nick Nicholls. Samian Platter with Grapes. 2008. Photograph. Ancient Rome: Eyewitness Books, New York. Print.
Shutterstock. A Dinner Invitation. 2009. Graphic. Ancient Rome: Navigators, New York. Print.
James, Simon. A Bun Pan. 2008. Photograph. Ancient Rome: Eyewitness Books, New York. Print.
Anderson, Peter. Bread Loaf on A Cooling Rack. 2008. Photograph. DK Images, London. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Dalgi Orti, Gianni. A Roman Man Buying Bread. 2008. Photograph. Alamy Images, Paris. Web. 11 Oct. 2013
Wladyslaw, Kowalski. Tesserae. 2010. Roman Board Games. Roman Board Games Photo Gallery. Photograph. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.



Doe, J. A Food Bar. 2011. Photograh. Romans: Children in History, Minnesota. Print.
James, Simon. Mortar and Pestle. 2008. Photograph. Ancient Rome: Eyewitness Books, New York. Print.
Graham, Christi, and Nick Nicholls. Bronze Strainer. 2008. Photograph. Ancient Rome: Eyewitness Books, New York. Print.
James, Simon. Up-To-Date Grater. 2008. Photograph. Ancient Rome: Eyewitness Books, New York. Print.
Jillianson, J. Relax and Enjoy. 2009. Painting. Alamy Images, New York. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Dinner (Cena)
Laskin, Mary. Finger Food. 2009. Painting. Ancient Rome: Eye Wonder, New York. Print.
Lessing, Erich. A Merchant's Stand. 2004. Photograph. The Ancient Romans: People of the Ancient World, New York. Print.
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