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Azande Presentation

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by

Kate Foland

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Azande Presentation

The Azande South Sudan 706,000 Central African Republic 83,000 D.R. Congo 1,553,000 Marriage There are two different marriage rituals of the Azande. Both are initiated by the suitor. For marriages that are arranged during the daughter’s infancy. Suitors place sesele leaves at the door of the hut of the girl that he wants to marry. If his proposal is accepted then the leaves remain in front of the house for the other suitors to see. However, if the proposal is denied, the leaves are brushed off to one side. The process continues until a suitor approaches that is approved. The daughter then grows up knowing whom her husband will be, however they do not live together until a bride wealth of spears is paid to the father of the bride. In cases of adult brides, a suitor sends a messenger to communicate his offer to the bride’s father. If the suitor is deemed acceptable, the father then discusses the matter first with his brothers and sisters, and next with the woman in question. If she was in agreement, the money sent with the messenger was accepted. Several days later, the suitor would visit his betrothed bride’s parents, bringing gifts and showing his respect. In turn, their daughter would visit her suitor’s home for a “trial period” of several weeks, after which she returned to her parents’ home to make her final decision regarding the marriage. Oracles would then be consulted to see if the marriage should occur and if it would be a happy one. If the Oracle approved, the bride’s family traveled to the home of the groom, where the ceremony took place. The marriage was sealed with the installation of the new bride’s own cooking hearth. Traditionally, the bride price was about 20 iron spears. Most men were only able to marry only one woman because of the steep bride price. However, nobles, and in particular kings, had multiple wives. In order to avoid paying the bride price, some men would arrange to marry each other’s sisters as a sort of trade. Temporary homosexual marriages were common during times of war when both spears and women were scarce. Population The Azande people have a total population of 2,342,000 and are primarily spread out over three countries It is believed that ancestors of the Azande migrated into the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the southern Sudan in the beginning of the 1600’s. Little to none is known about them prior to this time. After the death of King Leopold, South Sudan was handed over to the British. A civil war breaks out between North and South Sudan. South Sudan, not wanting to be controlled by Arab influenced Northern Sudan, fights for independence Origin Sudan was invaded by the Turko-Egyptians. During this occupation, Northern Sudan collaborated with the Turko-Egyptians to capture and sell many Southern Sudanese peoples into slavery in the Arab and Western worlds. The Azande people were included in this. 1821 Southern Sudan was colonized by the Belgians and the French. 1892 1910 1947 South Sudan is given by the British to North Sudan as a result of the Juba convention. This was considered a great betrayal as South Sudan was given virtually no rights to self-rule. 1955 2011 After years of fighting for independence, in January 2011, a referendum is held to decide whether South Sudan should become an independent nation. On July 9, 2011 after a whopping 98.83% of the population voted yes to independence, South Sudan finally becomes its own country. Birth Birth in the Azande culture is somewhat influenced by tradition. Pregnant woman are prevented from eating certain foods e.g. meat of waterbuck or a kind of sweet potato called mene, because it is believed to cause a miscarriage. There is no special ceremony at the birth of a child. However, four days after the infant’s cord has been cut a fire of green leaves is made at the threshold of the house. The mother with the child in her arms sits in the smoke for about half an hour. This is said to make the child strong. The remains of the fire are not thrown away but carefully placed on one of the paths leading to the village to prevent child’s ill health. There are no specific traditions related to the naming of children in the Azande culture. Food The traditional dietary staple of the Azande is a type of grain called eleusine and it some regions of the Azande a staple is cassava. Other crops include rice, maize (corn), sorghum, squash, peas, beans, okra, peanuts, greens, and bananas. To add protein to their diet, the men hunt game and the women catch fish. Chicken and eggs are considered delicacies, while termites are a huge favorite. Beverages include palm wine and alcoholic drinks made from cassava. Language The language that the Azande speak is Zande. The Azande are a Bantu group and their language bears a lot of similarities to the other Bantu languages. History Beliefs/Taboos The Azande believe that Mbori, the almighty God, is responsible for the creation of the world, but they do not have shrines, temples, rituals, or ceremonies to worship Mbori.. They are heavily involved in witchcraft, or mangu. To the Azande witchcraft is seen as a physical object which occupies specific individuals. They belief the gift of witchcraft to be hereditary and only within certain family lines. They also believe that witchcraft has the ability to grow inside a person with age. The older the individual is who possesses witchcraft the more of a threat they pose to their peers. It is also believed that death is directly caused by witchcraft, in their opinion there is no type of accidental death, all negative events are caused by witchcraft. Oracles Oracles are used for revelation within the culture. The Azande seek advice from these oracles on many occasions when they wish to learn information about their health, their future well being, their family, and more. Any questions or concerns they have about their life can be consulted with the oracles. There are also different levels of oracles.

This oracle is the lower of the two and can be used by anyone. It is built with two branches from two separate trees. Each branch is assigned an option and then is inserted into the ground to be left overnight. The next morning whichever branch has been eaten by the termites is "answer" to the decision.
This oracle is considered far more powerful than the termite oracle, and for that reason is only allowed to be used by men. A poison is injected into a live chicken. Once the poison is injected the person can then begin to ask the chicken yes or no questions.
The answers to those questions are then interpreted through the chicken. If the chicken dies then the answers are considered truthful. However, if the chicken lives then the answers are not considered truthful. No matter what decision is made it must be acted upon immediately. Dress Traditionally, Azande women wore cloth skirts and children wore necklaces made from chains of metal rings. Some Azande would also have their heads wrapped in cord, with the belief that it will protect their brains from evil spirits. In the past, Azande musicians and witch doctors wore costumes consisting of a cloth skirt, an elaborate headdress, and beads and bangles on the arms and around the ankles. Dwelling In precolonial times, Azande homesteads were typically widely scattered. A common pattern was for men from the same lineage to live in the same general area. Traditionally, huts were made of wood and mud. Each homestead was surrounded by gardens where a man and one or more of his wives grew crops such as sorghum or cassava. Colonialism changed this. Colonists forced many Azande to move to European-style villages of parallel straight streets. They often lived next to people who were strangers rather than relatives or kin. This change had a significant impact on Azande culture. Cultivation/Manufacture Manufacture:
The Azande are known as expert blacksmiths, potters, and wood carvers. A few smiths still operate as nearly full-time specialists, but most of their work consists of repairing blades and tools; iron smelting has ceased. Zande still make pots, carve wooden utensils, and weave baskets and mats.

Cultivation
The Azande are mainly small-scale farmers. Common crops include corn, rice, peanuts, sesame, cassava and sweet potatoes. Fruits grown in the area include mangos, oranges, bananas, pineapples, and also sugar cane. Political Structure Traditionally, the Azande nation's political structure consisted mainly of a group of Kingdoms, which were all ruled by members of the Avungara Dynasty. The size and number of these kingdoms varied over time as each kingdom was constantly at war with other kingdoms to increase its territory. The Termite Oracle Benge Chain of Command Chiefs

Governors Declaring war, holding a royal court, establishing laws managed provinces, paid tribute to the chief.
Often tried to set up their own states Warfare The Azande are fierce warriors. Used shields and spears
Fought mainly through a series of ambushes
Azande tribes engaged in warfare with each other often to increase their own territory. Source of income Subsistence farming
Cassava and coffee are important cash
crops Markets
Market trade is becoming increasingly important to the Azande economy as more and more of them are starting to live near towns. Division of Labor Women Subsistence farming, preparing and cooking food, gathering leaves for her husband's bed, collecting water, gathering firewood, delivering messages, and more MEN building and maintaining the homestead
hunting
Working outside of the home BEARING CHILDREN government positions in the kingdom Naming??? Afterlife In the Azande culture, all deaths, except those of very small children, are attributed to witchcraft or magic and call for magical vengeance. After death, the soul (mbisimo) becomes a ghost, which may sometimes reside in the homestead ghost shrine, but also dwells with other ghosts and with the Supreme Being, Mbori, in the forest. Religious Ceremonies The most important ceremonies are the witch doctors' séances. One or more witch doctors, in colorful ceremonial clothes, would dance and sing to music before beginning the séance Consulting the Oracles is also an important ceremony Lifecycle Women Birth (achieved by observing and assisting one's mother) womanhood Marriage Childbearing Death Men Birth Death Marriage Circumcision Family Size Men are encouraged to have multiple wives.
However, few can afford it. Each wife and her children live in their own home that is owned by the husband. Transportation South Sudan is almost entirely unpaved

Common modes of transport include airways and railroads. http://azande.webs.com/

http://www.gurtong.net/Peoples/PeoplesProfiles/Azande/tabid/179/Default.aspx

http://azandeinfo.wikispaces.com/Family+Structure

http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Brazil-to-Congo-Republic-of/Azande.html#b References Katelyn Foland
PACA
Azande Presentation The Church Nowadays, the biggest religion among the Azande is Roman Catholicism.

Ethnic Religions make up about 15.00 % of the population. Current Issues in South Sudan After years of civil war, millions of people living in South Sudan still struggle with food insecurity and poverty.

About 51 percent of the population lives below the poverty line.

Only about 48 percent of children are enrolled in primary school; the percentage of children entering secondary school is even lower. South Sudan has the second lowest child enrollment rates in the world, after Afghanistan.

More than 250,000 people are living with HIV or AIDS.

The mortality rate for children under age 5 is 135 per 1,000 live births. Malaria, acute respiratory infections, and diarrheal diseases, combined with malnutrition, are the leading causes of death for children under the age of 5. Conclusion The Azande have a proud, culture rich history. They are warriors who are unafraid to fight for themselves and their own independence.
However, the battles for independence have left the country of South Sudan in distress. It is important to pray for the physical needs of the country as well as the spiritual.
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