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Religious Affiliation and Social Stratification: Catholics a
Transcript of Religious Affiliation and Social Stratification: Catholics a
*Protestants believe in economic rationalism.
*There is hardly any evidence of economic development for the Catholics.
---Economic rationalism is not observed in the history of Catholicism, whether they were the minority or majority.
--We can conclude that economic rationalism is not a value of the Catholic religion.
The Spirit of Capitalism
*It is the duty of the individual to increase his wealth.
---To not work to increase your wealth is not seen as foolishness, it is to deny your duty and responsibility.
----Punctuality, industry, and frugality are virtues.
-However in excess, they are no longer virtues and are instead considered unproductive wastefulness.
Credit is money
Why did the Catholics become Protestant?
The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century
---Eliminated the presence of the Catholic church.
---Replaced with Protestant religion, which penetrated all aspects of life.
1) The amount of Catholic children enrolled into accelerated learning tracks is significantly low in comparison to the amount of Catholics as a whole.
2)The Catholic children enrolled in accelerated tracks prepare to study languages, philosophy, and history in the university.
-Protestant children prepare to study technical fields, commerce, and industry.
Religious Affiliation and Social Stratification: Catholics and Protestants
*Weber discusses the presence of two religions in Germany, the Catholics and the Protestants.
*The owners of capital, the more skilled and educated workers, and workers employed by large industrial/commercial companies were PROTESTANT.
----This was because in the old German empire, most of the richest and most economically developed areas (areas that favored trade), became Protestant during the 16th century.
The Protestant Ethic and the
Spirit of Capitalism
Why didn’t the Catholics defend themselves and fight back? Why did they allow the Protestants to take over?
3) Factories take young workers away from the crafts once they’ve acquired a skill.
-Catholics often stay to become master craftsmen.
-Protestants leave for the factory and become high-level workers or industrial managers.
Why were the Protestants more wealthy than the Catholics?
-Money creates more money if you don’t collect your debt on time, the other person collects the interest.
-Being a honest man increases your credit
“Beware of thinking that you own all that you possess, and of living accordingly. It’s a mistake that many people who have credit fall into.”
Piece rate method
*One of the technical means used by the modern employer to achieve the highest possible productivity from “his” workers, and to increase the intensity of work is known as the piece-rate method of payment.
*People are paid according to the fruits of their labor.
Ex: harvesting crops
**Increasing the piece rate often led to less productivity in the same period of time rather than more
**This declined occurred because the workers responded to the increase by decreasing their daily productivity.
**The opportunity of earning more appealed to them less than the idea of working less.
***So the question changed from “If I produce as much as possible, how much money will I earn each day?” to “How long must I work in order to earn the amount of money.”
“People do not wish by nature to earn more and more money. Instead, they wish simply to live, and to live as they have been accustomed and earn as much as is required to do so.”
What is Asceticism?
**severe self-discipline and avoidance of all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons.
Wealth is to be used for necessary,
High regard for the external display of luxury consumption was condemned by Puritans. According to them God wanted a rational and utilitarian use of wealth on behalf of the basic needs of the person and the community
Wealth as Temptation
pursuit of riches, struggle against greed
of work in a vocational calling is Gods blessing
becoming rich is the means to an end
The formation of capital through asceticism's compulsive saving. The restrictions that opposed the consumption of wealth indeed had their productive use, for profit and gain became used as
breaking the rules
many groups frequently betrayed the old ideas
wealth was used to accumulate either land or noble status or it threatened the dissolution of monastic discipline
"reform movements" in monasticism had to intervene
" I fear, wherever riches have increased the essence of religion has decreased in the same proportion. There for I do not see how it is possible, in the nature of things for any revival of true religion to continue long. For religion must necessarily produce both industry and frugality, and these cannot but produce riches. But as riches increase, so will pride, anger and love of the world in all its branches..."
Is there no way to prevent this continual decay of pure religion?
"We ought not to prevent people from being diligent and frugal; we must exhort all christians to gain all they can and to save all they can; that is in effect, to grow rich."
The significance for economic development of the powerful early religious movements was to be found mainly in the ascetic effects of their socialization
Accounting to Wesley:
*one consecutive component of the modern capitalist spirit and generally of modern civilization was the rational organization of life on the basis of the
idea of the calling
born out of the spirit of christian asceticism
view of work as a "vocational calling"
modern work in a vocational calling supposedly carried an ascetic imprint
limitation of persons to specialized work->necessities the renunciation of multi-dimensionality of the human species. Today it is a precondition for doing anything of "value"
- The spirit of asceticism has fled, in its place competitive spirit.
-Today people reject the idea of a "vocational calling"
The last humans: " narrow specialists without minds, pleasure -seekers without hearts; in its conceit, this nothingness imagines it has climbed to a level of humanity never before attained"
*the doctrine that a person can attain a high spiritual and moral state by practicing self-denial, self-mortification, and the like.