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World Geography STAAR List

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Ruly Gonzalez

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of World Geography STAAR List

Ruly Gonzalez Prezi List Map -Reading Map Reading Pt. 2 Types of Regions Structure of the Earth Absolute Location- exact place on earth
Relative Location- place in relation to other places
Hemisphere- each half of globe
Equator- cuts earth into northern/southern halves
Prime Meridian- cuts earth into eastern/western halves
Latitude- parallel to equator to measure north and south
Longitude- go through the poles and measure east/west Topographic Map- general reference map
Global Positioning System- satellites that relay
geographic info to earth
Geographic Information System- uses digital map
information to create databank
Scale- ration between length on map and distance on
Physical Map- shows landforms and bodies of water
Political Map- shows man made features
Thematic Map- map that shows specific info Formal Regions- regions defined by limited number of related characteristics
Functional Regions- region formed around interactions/connections i.e city and its suburbs
Perceptual Regions- region where people perceive its characteristics the same Core-the solid metallic center of the earth
Mantle-soft layer of molten rock, 1,800 miles thick
Magma-molten rock formed when mantle melts crust
Crust-thin layer of rock on earths surface Parts of the Earth Lithosphere-solid rock portion of earth's surface
Hydrosphere-waters on earths surface
Atmosphere-layers of gases immediately surrounding Earth
Biosphere-all parts of earth where plants/animals live Water and Landforms Hydrologic Cycle-continuous cycling of water
Drainage Basin-area drained by major river
Water Table-level at which rock is saturated
Landforms-naturally formed feature of earth's surface
Delta-fan shaped landform made from deposited sediment left from river going into an ocean
Glacier-large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves due to gravity Tectonic Plate-enormous moving shelf that forms crust
Divergent Boundary-plates that move apart
Convergent Boundary-colliding plates force one under or over the other
Transform Boundary-when plates slide past each other
Fault-fracture in crust where plates move past eachother Internal Forces Shaping Earth Earthquakes Seismograph-measure size of waves in earthquake
Epicenter-directly above where earthquake began
Richter Scale-scale to measure relative strength of earthquake
Tsunami-giant wave in ocean caused by earthquake
Ring of Fire-zone around rim of Pacific ocean where majority of active volcanoes are found External Forces Shaping Earth Mechanical Weathering-natural process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces
Chemical Weathering-process that changes rock into new substance
Erosion-result of weathering on matter
Glaciations-erosion by glaciers Soil and Vegetation Humus-organic material in soil
Soil-Building-process where organic material becomes fertile soil
Ecosystem-interdependent community of plants and animals
Biomes-regional ecosystems i.e forest, desert Seasons Solstice-either of two times of year when the sun’s rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter; in Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice the shortest
Equinox-each of two days during the year where day and night are equal lengths
Tropic of Cancer-the farthest point north where the suns rays still shine overhead at noon
Tropic of Capricorn-the farthest point south where the suns rays still shine overhead at noon Weather and Climate Weather-condition of atmosphere at particular place and time
Climate-typical weather conditions at a particular location
Precipitation-falling water droplets
Wind Systems-help distribute sun's heat from one part of the world to another
Ocean Currents-impact temperature of area and amount of precipitation an area receives Weather Extremes Hurricane-storm that forms over warm tropical waters
Typhoon-tropical storm like hurricane that occurs in West Pacific
Tornado-powerful, funnel shaped tower of spiraling air
Blizzard-heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 mph and reduced visibility of less than 1/4 mile
Drought-long period without rain or with minimal amount Climate Part 2 Climate Region-region that experiences particular weather conditions
Tropical-refers to region with little temperature deviation
Tundra-flat, treeless lands around Arctic Ocean
Permafrost-permanently frozen ground Culture and Population Culture-total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
Ethnic Minority-individual who identifies with the minority population of a region
Religious Minority-individual who belongs to a minority religion in a region
Multicultural Society-population that contains several culture groups Cultural Change and Exchange Innovation-taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet need
Diffusion-spread of ideas, inventions or patterns to different societies
Cultural Hearth-heartland or place of origin of a major culture
Acculturation-cultural change that occurs when individuals in society accept innovation Cultural Beliefs and Expression Custom-practice routinely followed by a group of people
Nationalism-a belief that people or ethnic groups should have in their own government/homeland
Patriotism-devotion to ones country
Cultural Landscapes-visible imprint of human activity on a landscape Religion Monotheistic-belief in existence of only one god
Christianity-monotheistic religion based on teachings of Jesus. worlds largest religion
Islam-worlds second largest religion and follows teachings of Muhammad
Judaism-monotheistic religion that follows teachings of Abraham
Sikhism-combines Hindi concept of reincarnation and Islam monotheism. Is in northern India Religion Part 2 Polytheistic-belief in existence of many gods
Buddhism-believe that enlightenment would come through knowledge, elimination of greed, desire, and craving, being completely honest and to never hurt humans or animals
Hinduism-one of oldest religions and originated in Indus River Valley
Animistic-belief that inanimate objects have souls and are hindering human efforts Demographic Indicators Birthrate-number of births per total population
Fertility Rate-average number of children a woman would have during childbearing years in her lifetime
Mortality Rate-number of deaths per thousand
Infant Mortality-number of deaths among infants under the age of one
Population Pyramids-graphic device that shows gender/age distribution of population
Life Expectancy-number of years on average someone is expected to live in an area
Literacy Rate-percentage of population that can read and write
Population Density-average number of people in a measurable area Movement Push and Pull Factors-factors that push people from homeland and attract them to new locations
Migration-movement of peoples within country/region
Connectivity-degree of direct linkage between locations with transport network Governments Democracy-citizens hold political power directly or through representatives
Dictatorship-an individual or group hold complete political power
Monarchy-family headed by king or queen hold power and may or may not share with citizens
Republic-citizens elect representatives on their behalf
Theocracy-government is under control of ruler who is believed t be divinely guided
Totalitarian-state holds all political and economic power i.e communism Settlement Patterns Metropolitan Area-functional consisting of city and surrounding suburbs/exurbs
Suburbs-community touching borders of the central city
Urbanization-dramatic rise in number of cities and result in change in lifestyle
Sustainable Development-economic/population growth that doesn't impact environment in negative manner
Infrastructure-basic support systems needed to keep economy going Economic Systems Free Enterprise-little government control and is run by private individuals for profit
Socialist-social/public ownership exists and intended to do most good to majority of people
Communist-government holds nearly all political and economic power
Traditional-goods and services are exchanged without use of money Levels of Development Primary-economic activities that involve getting raw material for immediate use or to use to create a final product
Secondary-economic activities that involve adding value to materials by changing their form
Tertiary-economic activities that involve providing business or professional services
Quaternary-economic activities that provide information, management, and research to highly trained persons Economic Indicators Gross Domestic per Capita-the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
Standard of Living-a measure of a quality of life in a location
Less Developed-a country or region that hasn't attained a certain level of development
Newly Developed-country or region that has recently attained a certain level of development
More Developed-a country that has attained the highest level of development due to wealth, income, economic and social opportunities Economic Production Subsistence Agriculture-an activity where a family produces only enough food to be self-sufficient
Commercial Agriculture-an activity where crops are grown food the purpose of sale
Cottage Industries-an economic activity done at home
Commercial Industries-an economic activity performed in a factory where division of labor exists
Manufacturing-an economic activity that utilizes skilled labor and machines to produce goods for sale
Service Industries-an economic activity where a service is provided rather than a good Trade Globalization-expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
Outsourcing-when production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor
Free Trade Zones-areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes that might exist
Export-product or good that is sold from one country to another
Import-product that is purchased from one country to another
NAFTA-North American Free Trade Agreement. Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries History New World-popular name given to Americans by European settlers
Colombian Exchange-The exchange of plants, animals and disease between the New and Old Worlds
Colony-an outpost on foreign land
Louisiana Purchase-this purchase nearly doubled U.S land
Frontier-open lands beyond last populated settlements
Dust Bowl-climatic disaster in the Great Plains region caused by poor farming techniques and continued drought Geography- Arable Land- land fit for agricultural production
Continental Divide- line of the highest points in North America that marks the separation between rivers flowing eastward and westward
Prairie-temperate grasslands
Tornado Alley-region in Midwest where most tornadoes occur
Rust Belt-economically depressed region around Great Lakes
Sun Belt-economically expanding region of southern U.S Population- Native Americans-inhabitants of the Americas at the time when the Europeans first arrived
Baby Boomers-babies born after WWII but before mid-60's
Inuit-natives of Canada and Alaska
Metis-person born from mixed union
Bilingualism-where two or more languages are spoken History Aztec People-ancient peoples of Central Mexico
Mestizo-a person born from a mixed union
Mayan People-Ancient peoples of northern Central America
Taino-group of peoples who inhabited the Caribbean Islands at the time of the European conquest
Inca People-ancient peoples of western South America Geography Cerrado-savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming, located in the interior of Brazil
Pampas-savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming, located in northern Argentina and Uruguay
Rain Forest-dense forests in tropical regions
Isthmus-narrow strip of land connecting larger landmasses
El Nino-weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Americas and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia Economy Slash and Burn-way of clearing fields by burning everything in an area
Terraced Farming-ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes
Remittances-money migrants send to family in other countries
Migratory Labor-workers who move with availability of employment
Informal Economy-economic activities that take place outside official channels History Renaissance-period of European history when there was a renewed interest in learning and the arts
Bubonic Plague-also known as Black Death/Plague in 15th century and killed 30-60% of Europe's population
Pandemics-disease affecting wide geographic area
Genocide-deliberate extermination of population based on characteristics
Industrial Revolution-shift from making goods by hand to by machine Geography Peninsula-landmass nearly surrounded by water but connected to mainland
Fjords-long, narrow deep inlet of sea between steep slopes
North Atlantic Drift-current of warm water from tropics that flows near Europe’s west coast
Arctic Circle-tundra climate region often in permafrost
Terpen-high earthen platforms that are part of sea works project
Polder-land that is reclaimed from sea Economy European Union-political/economic alliance among 27 European countries
Euro-common currency by those in the eurozone
Eurozone-monetary union among 17 of the European Union’s 27 members
Tariff-tax on imported goods History Czar-Russian emperor
USSR-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Cold War-conflict between U.S and USSR that never resulted in conflict
North Atlantic Treaty Organization-a.k.a NATO is military alliance to address issue of Soviet Expansion Geography Eurasia-combined continent of Europe and Asia
Transcaucasia-region consisting of republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
Siberia-region of central and eastern Russia stretching from the Ural mountains to the Pacific Ocean
Steppe-temperate grassland in Northern Hemisphere Economy Command Economy-production of goods and services controlled by government
Privatization-selling of government-owned businesses to private citizens History Mosque-islamic place of worship
Zionism-movement that began in the 19th century to create Jewish homeland in Palestine
Palestine Liberation Organization-(PLO) group formed in 1960’s to regain Arab land in Israel
Taliban-strict Muslim group in Afghanistan that has imposed rigid rules on society Geography Aquifer-underground layer of rock that store water
Oasis-place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface
Desertification-expansion of dry conditions to moist areas
Mesopotamia-old civilization located in the fertile crescent Economy Irrigation-agricultural method that provides water to farmland through man-made improvements
Desalinization-removal of salt from ocean water
Crude oil-unprocessed petroleum
Refinery-place where crude oil is converted into useful products
OPEC-Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an economic alliance that regulates the production and price of much of the world’s supply of petroleum
Guest Workers-foreign workers, often unskilled, brought to fill openings in booming oil economy History Olduvai Gorge-site of fossil beds in Tanzania and has record of humanity for past 2 million years
Bantu Migrations-movement of Bantu peoples southward through Africa
Postcolonial-refers to time after colonial rule
Apartheid-policy of complete separation of races
Acquired Immune Deficiency System-AIDS, disease caused by HIV Geography Savanna-flat, grassy, treeless plains
Plateau-wide and level area of elevated land
Basin-depression in earths surface
Rift Valley-long and thing valley created by moving apart of continental plates Economy Commodity-sellable agricultural or mining product
Cash Crop-crop grown for purpose of selling
Famine-severe shortage of food over long period of time
Diversify-to increase the variety of products in a countries economy History Indus Valley Civilization-largest of world's first civilizations
Aryan Invasion-Indo-Europeans who migrated to Indian subcontinent in 1500 B.C
Mughal Empire-Muslim empire established in 1500's over most of India
British Raj-period of British rule in India
Partition of British India-division of postcolonial India Geography Subcontinent-landmass like a continent, but smaller
Alluvial Plain-land that is well suited with rich soil for farmland
Archipelago-set of closely grouped islands
Monsoon-seasonal wind
Cyclone-term for hurricane in Pacific Ocean
Kashmir-region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought Economy Land Reform-process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers
Green Revolution-agricultural program launched by scientists in the 60's to develop higher yielding grain varieties
Textile Industry-economic activity primarily concerned with cloth and cloth product production Culture Nonviolent Resistance-movement that protests without violence
Bollywood-motion picture industry in Mumbai
Caste System-Aryan system of social classes in India
Ramadan-Islamic practice of month long fasting
Sherpas-person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal who serves as the traditional mountain guide of the Mount Everest region History Dynasty-series of rulers from the same family
Travels of Marco Polo-popular name for work of literature describing Marco Polo's journey to court of Kubla Khan
People's Republic of China-communist government formed in China after defeat of Japan in WWII
Pearl Harbor-air-sea battle between Imperial Japanese Navy and American Forces at Oahu, Hawaii
Hiroshima-city which was the target of first atomic bomb attack
Korean War-3 year period or warfare between Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea following fall of Japan in WWII
United Nations-international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world Geography Typhoon-name for hurricanes in the Pacific
Pacific Rim-economic/social region including countries surrounding Pacific Ocean, extending clockwise from New Zealand in western Pacific to Chile in eastern Pacific and includes west coast of United States
Landlocked-having no outlet to the sea Economy- Hydroelectric Power-electricity created by hydropower by falling-flowing of water
Economic Tiger-country with rapid economic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and aggressive exports
Nuclear Power-energy created by nuclear reactors
Export Economy-economy highly dependent on exports
Multinational-corporation that engages in business world wide Culture Shintoism-found primarily in Japan and is similar to Buddhism
Taoism-based on teachings of philosopher Loazi who taught about the universal power called Dao
One-Child Policy-policy limiting to only one child per family to attempt to reduce overall population
Han People-majority ethnic group in China and comprises over 20% of worlds population
Mandarin-official language in People's Republic of China
Samurai-professional soldier in Japan that began to fade with modern warfare techniques History Bikini Atoll-isolated reef located in Marshall Islands that was the site of U.S. nuclear bomb tests
Khmer Empire-powerful empire that lasted from 9th-15th centuries in CambodiaIndochina-French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
Vietnam War-military conflict resulting from American involvement in South Vietnam to prevent it from being conquered by North Vietnam Geography High Islands-Pacific islands created by volcanoes
Low Islands-Pacific islands created by coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef-1,250 mile chain of more than 2,500 reefs and islands along Australia’s northeast coast
Outback-dry, unpopulated inland region of Australia
Polar Desert-cold weather region where temperature doesn't exceed 10 degrees Fahrenheit and gets less than 10 in. of rain
Krakatoa-massive volcanic explosion that occurred off the coasts of the islands of Java and Sumatra in 1883 Economics ASEAN-Association of Southeastern Asian Nations, alliance that promotes economic growth and peace in the region
Subsitence Activities-activity in which family only produces what they need
Poverty Rate-measure of minimum income deemed adequate in region Culture Aboriginal People-original settlers of Australia
Maori-first settlers of New Zealand
Stolen Generation-the name of the 100,000 mixed race children taken by government and given to white families
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