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Mind Map: Causes of the First World War
Transcript of Mind Map: Causes of the First World War
EX: On July 5th 1914, Germany gave Austria-Hungary a "blank check". This meant that Germany would give Austria-Hungary unconditional support whenever they might ask for it. This lead Austria to declare was on Serbia after they failed to agree to all of Austria-Hungary's terms.
- The strong relationship between France and Britain served as a threat to Germany and Austria-Hungary. They had the most colonies and were two super-powers in Europe, thus creating tension with the other countries.
- Alliance systems obligated countries to follow each other into war, therefore creating a wider spread involvement. The Alliance System - Britain (1/5th of world) and France had a huge net of colonies across the globe, but Germany had only a few in Africa because they had joined the colonization movement later on. This power struggle led to tension and jealousy.
- Germany wanted to limit the French and British control through colonies so it tried to prevent them from colonizing new countries and falsely supporting that country's nationalism.
EX: The Moroccan Crisis in which Germany tried to stop France's invasion of Morocco before being payed of with land in the Congo Imperialism -The efforts to maintain and build up a powerful military
-At the onset of the first world war, the attitude held towards war was that it meant a great adventure and glory. This encouraged many young men to enlist, and encouraged broad support for war.
-The nations building up and glorifying their militaries held the attitude that war is an acceptable way to solve international conflict
-Germany instigated a naval arms race with England, who had the largest Navy in the world (in order to protect its shipping lanes and colonies). This competition culminated in the release of the English Dreadnought ship.
-France and Germany also engaged in competition to build up their armies as much as possible, more than doubling their armies between 1870 and 1914.
-Russia was also building up its army
-The enormous military power in the possession of Europe's major powers set the stage for war. Militarism - Countries no longer wanted to be colonized by a powerful empire (EX: British Empire). Instead they demanded to govern their own country independently.
EX: Austria-Hungary wanted control of Serbia but Serbia refused because they wanted independence. This lead to Germany giving Austria-Hungary a blank check to support them in possible retaliation.
This nationalist attitude spread rapidly and soon Britain and France were running into conflict with their colonies. This lead to hostile and aggressive behavior from both countries.
- Assassination of Franz Ferdinand by Serbian Rebel because of the rebel group's desire for independence. Nationalism 1. Boer War (1899-1902)
Germany opposed Britain's attempt to defeat the Boers in South Africa.
2. Moroccan crisis (1905-1906)
Germany promised to support Morocco against France's attempts to take over the country.
3. Bosnia (1908)
Austria took control of Bosnia,which annoyed Serbia, as they had plans to do the same. Russia wanted to help Serbia, but had to back down because its Allies disapproved.
4. Agadir (1911)
During revolution in Morocco France sent an army to take over. Germany sent their own gunship, but Britain and France forced them to back down.
4. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand (1914)
The Austro-Hungarian Archduke and Archduchess were shotin Sarajevo (Bosnia) by a Serbian terrorist. Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia and gave them an ultimatum, when they interpreted Serbia's response as a refusal they declared war (after receiving confirmation of German support). Crises/Events Germany:
-Wanted "its place in the sun", frustrated at its late entry into colonialism and at France and Britain's expansive territory
-Believed it could win a war now but maybe not later, with the use of the Schlieffen Plan
-Concerned about pan-slavism, Russia's interest in controlling the region
-Concerned about the stability of their multi-ethnic state, many components of their country wanted independence
-Wanted a warm water port for economic reasons
-Wanted control of slavic nations, and areas (the Balkans)
-Believed loyalty to the alliance system to be the only way to remain a major European power
-Believed in the sovreignty of independent nations (Belgium)
-Threatened by Germany (aggressive behaviour and colonial attitude) Motives - Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke A comic of Russia, Britain and France toasting to their alliance