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Genetics

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Xavier Martinez

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Genetics

GENETICS
Genetics
"Genetics use the methods of science to investigate all aspects of genes: How they are segregated from generation to generation and how they are expressed and how they behave in population." (Peter J. Russell)
Historical Survey: Proponents
If humanity was able to genetically engineer offspring, there will be psychological-physiological results we cannot foresee - whether it be positive or negative
On the topic of a designer baby, God’s grace abounds. No matter how we each were conceived - whether in or out of wedlock, rape, or genetically engineered - we are not defined/condemned by that. What defines us is the blood of Jesus.
We live in a fallen world where sickness exists
Medical Treatment is not against the Bible (though medical treatment can go past the biblical line)
Application
Question & Answer
Genetics: Fifith Edition, Peter J. Russell
Sources
Genetics is the study of how different qualities, called traits, are passed down from
parents to child.
The first designer baby was created in the U.S. in 2000. Doctors used screening techniques to test the embryos of Lisa and Jack Nash. They chose the embryos that would be an exact cell match to their daughter Molly. Molly suffers from a genetic disorder called Fanconi Anemia which causes bone marrow deficiency. The embryo selected did not carry the disease and was a perfect tissue match. As a result, Adam Nash was born in August after Mrs. Nash underwent four IVF cycles. Stem cells were collected from his umbilical cord to be donated and used to replace Molly's bone marrow. (The baby created to save older sister)



Historical Background
Cons
Pros
Cloning
History
•1885- was the first ever demonstration of artificial embryo twinning
•1902- Artificial embryo twining in a vertebrate
•First successful nuclear transfer was in 1952
•1996- Dolly was the first mammal to be created by somatic cell and nuclear transfer
•2013- Human embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer
Pros
Medical breakthrough

- Cure infertility
- Cure for baldness
- A child’s right to be better than it’s parents
- Take a step back to immorality
- Make a future couple financially secure
- Believe in your right to freedom
- Cure for baldness
- Fund research
Designer Baby
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/clonezone/
Designer baby is a term that refers to the product of a genetically engineered baby. These babies are "designed" (fixed/changed) while still in the womb to achieve more desired looks, skills, or talents.

https://answersingenesis.org/sanctity-of-life/cloning/the-scientific-and-scriptural-case-against-human-cloning/
IVF (In-vitro fertilization) and Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are used to create designer babies. Using IVF, a single cell is removed from an embryo. The embryos are grown to the eight-cell stage, then using PGD, the cell is genetically tested. PGD can identify certain embryos carrying abnormal genes and select a specific sex to avoid sex-linked diseases. Based on the results of the test, parents can decide which embryos they want to implant into the womb and which ones they want to discard.
(http://www.livescience.com/44087-designer-babies-ethics.html)

(http://designerbabiesam.weebly.com/historical-background.html)
- Prevention of Diseases
Gregor Mendel- known as the fathyer of genetics, 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar.
William Bateson, a proponent of Mendel's work, coined the word genetics in 1905
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics
-Genetic Enchancement
-Embryos are Aborted in the process
- Genetically modifying the babies could possibly effect the gene pool. This could cause difficulties later on throughout the baby’s family tree.
Alfred Sturtevant produced the firstgenetic map
http://psych.colorado.edu/~carey/hgss2/pdfiles/Ch%2001%20History%20of%20Genetics.pdf
-Increases knowledge and understanding genetics for genealogists and biologists.
-Reduces risk of inherited medical conditions
Cons
-Allows prospective parents to give their child genes that they do not carry.
https://designerbabiesethics.wordpress.com/2013/04/28/the-cons-of-designer-babies/
• The possibility of compromising individuality.
• Loss of genetic variation.
• A “black market” of fetuses may arise from desirable donors that will want to be able to clone themselves, i.e., movie stars, athletes, and others.
• Technology is not well developed. It has a low fertility rate. In cloning Dolly, 277 eggs were used, 30 started to divide, nine induced pregnancy, and only one survived to term (Nash).
-Increased life span
-Baby has no choice in the matter.
• Unknown psychosocial harms with impacts on the family and society.
-Genes often have more than one use.
-Loss of Individuality
-It would cost a lot of money, only the rich could afford it.
http://www.futureforall.org/bioengineering/designer-babies.html
Since the creation of Adam, many more couples have created their own designer baby to save their sick child or prevent their offspring from inheriting a certain genetic disease.
Case Study
Katharine Moser was tested for Huntington’s disease and she was tested positve and will get "HD".
Biblical Survey

Cloning, designing a person's genes, gene therapy, etc. can be seen as manipulating man and God did not give man dominion to rule over another as He did with animals (Gen 1:26-27; Gen 9:2-3; Luke 16:19-31; Phillippians 1:23; Ex. 20:13, Ps. 139).
The scriptures above show that life starts in the womb. Using wine for stomach ailments or figs on a boil show that medicine is not evil (1 Tim 5:23; Is 38:21; Jer 8:22; Luke 10:34). Manipulating a use of a natural substance (e.g. figs, stem cells, genes, etc.) to heal does not go against Scripture
only
if the
means
of the cure or medicine does not go against Scripture (embryos being destroyed during the process).
Intro
"Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" was an article published by Francis Crick and James D. Watson in the scientific journal Nature in its 171st volume It was the first publication which described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, using X-ray diffraction and the mathematics of a helixtransform.
This article is often termed a "pearl" of science because it is brief and contains the answer to a fundamental mystery about livingorganisms. This mystery was the question of how it is possible that genetic instructions are held inside organisms and how they are passed from generation to generation. The article presents a simple and elegant solution, which surprised many biologists at the time who believed that DNA transmission was going to be more difficult to deduce and understand. The discovery had a major impact on biology, particularly in the field of genetics, enabling later researchers to understand the genetic code
Watson & Crick
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" published by Francis Crick and James D. Watson
Katherine Moser's grandfather died of Huntington's disease when he was in his early fifties.
Katherine was in her early 20 when she was face with the decision whether to be tested for the gene.
After realizing that many of her family member had died due to Huntington's disease, her desire to be tested became more intense.
Human Genome Project
Genetics helps explain what makes you unique, why family members look alike, and why some diseases run in families. When we trace the paths of these qualities, we are following packages of information called genes.
http://now.tufts.edu/articles/against-designer-babies#sthash.vAklZlVA.dpuf
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