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Cass, Fassinger & D'Augelli Comparison
Transcript of Cass, Fassinger & D'Augelli Comparison
Presented By: Seth Barnes, Luke Bretscher, Jillian Freeman, Stephanie Meyer & Mike Wismer
Cass, Fassinger & D'Augelli
Cass' Model of Sexual Orientation
Fassinger's Model of Gay and
Lesbian Identity Development
Started with lesbian identity development model in 1996
--> Later validated for men
Cultural and contextual influences were taken into account
Model consists of two parallel processes: individual and group
--> Four stages for each process
Released "Homosexual Lifespan Development Model" in 1994
Added the component of social context
Interactive variables and processes, not ordered stages
Individual can develop one process without another (Bilodeau & Renn, 2005, p. 29)
Stage 1– Identity Confusion
Stage 2- Identity Comparison
Stage 3- Identity Tolerance
Stage 4- Identity Acceptance
Stage 5- Identity Pride
Stage 6- Identity Synthesis
Fassinger's Model of Gay and Lesbian Identity Developement
D'Augelli's Life Span Model of Sexual Orientation Development
Variables that shape identity:
1) Personal Subjectivities and Actions
2) Interactive Intimacies
3) Sociohistorical Connections
The Six Interactive Processes:
o Exiting heterosexual identity
- Recognizing non-heterosexual feelings and attractions
o Developing a personal LGB identity status
- What it means for the individual to be LGB
o Developing a LGB social identity
- Creating a support network who know and accept individual
o Becoming a LGB offspring
- Disclosing to parents and redefining the relationship after disclosure
o Developing a LGB intimacy status
- First meaningful relationship (Evans, et. al., 2010, p. 317)
o Entering a LGB community
- Making commitment to social/political action
(D'Augelli, 1994; Love, Bock, Jannarone & Richardson, 2005)
Application to Higher Education
Bilodeau, B. L. & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity development models and implications for practice. In R. L. Sanlo (Ed.), Gender identity and sexual orientation: Research, policy, and personal perspectives (pp. 25-39). New Directions for Student Services, No. 111. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cass, V. C. (1996). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4(3), 219-235.
Cass, V. C. (1984). Homosexual identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 9(2), 105-126.
D’Augell, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312-333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., & Renn, K. A. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Love, P., Bock, M., Jannarone, A., & Richardson, P. (2005). Identity interaction: Exploring the spiritual experiences of lesbian and gay college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46 (2), 193-209. doi: 10.1353/csd.2005.0019
McCarn, S. R., & Fassinger, R. E. (1996). Revisioning sexual minority identity formation: A new model of lesbian identity and its implications for counseling and research. Counseling Psychologist, 24, 508-534.
Poynter, K., & Washington, J. (2005). Multiple identities: Creating community on campus for LGBT students. New Directions For Student Services, (111), 41-47.
The study of non-heterosexual identities used to be rooted in finding a cause and cure for a “disease”. Beginning in the 1970’s, researchers including Cass, Fassinger, and D’Augelli began to study the identity development of those who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Through these studies, professionals began to better understand the identity development process for LGB individuals.
Understand basic principles of LGB identity development, according to Cass, Fassinger & D'Augelli
Be able to compare concepts of each model
Synthesize knowledge through an activity
Identify criticisms and implications for higher education
“We look forward to a day when models for internalizing self-acceptance will be irrelevant and obsolete because we will have ceased to perpetuate a context that fosters self-loathing- to a day when the word homosexual has lost its power to label and stigmatize people and has become merely a descriptor of one of a wide variety of acceptable forms of loving” ( McCarn & Fassinger, 1996, p.532).
Listen, don’t just observe
Tailor programming to developmental stages
Community involvement does not equal identity development
Create campus and vocational environments that support LGBQTA students
Safe Zones and safe housing
Stages of Cass’ model may not apply to all LGB students and could be simplifiedDoes not account for differences within cultures
Model ignores bisexuality