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Quality of Education - Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

4 October 2013

Stella Yu

on 4 October 2013

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Transcript of Quality of Education - Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

Map of Pedagogical Knowledge
Curriculum, Instruction & Assessment
Model of Good Quality Education (Tikly, 2010)
Quality of Teaching - Pedagogy
Education Policy and Reform Unit (EPR)
UNESCO Bangkok, 4 Oct 2013

One of many ways of thinking about '
Quality of Education

Other models include:
Input-Process-Output Model
Child Friendly School Model
'Fabric' Model

Features of this model:
Intersection of
policies, home/community & school
Perceptions of
Curricular Aims
Curriculum Framework
Curriculum Review
Structure of Curriculum
Curriculum Content
The formal (or intended) curriculum:

As defined in guidelines, frameworks and guides that specify what students are expected to learn and should be able to do. (IBE)

The implemented curriculum:
What is actually taught in the classroom, including how it is delivered. (IBE)
Curriculum development:
Systematic process of building curriculum (IBE)
and the
in education
A relevant curriculum is a necessary pre-requisite of quality education.
Outline of what the country wants its young people to learn / to do.
reviewing, designing, implementing and evaluating
the curriculum
Ensures that the national curriculum remains
in light of changes such as local developments and global trends.
An active
model involving all stakeholders should be adopted.
Japan: Every 10 years
Singapore: Every 6 years
(Mid-term review every 3 years)
Viet Nam: Every 5-10 years
Allowing for flexibility and customization
Centrally controlled curriculum:
Capable of promoting excellence
& identifying talent
Flexible Curriculum:
Able to accommodate all students
Promote sensible local adaptations
Empower teachers and principals to become knowledge workers
A detailed national curriculum
(E.g. Republic of Korea & Lao PDR)
A broad framework with general learning areas (E.g. Australia & India)
Of the countries that have detailed national curriculum framework, a few of them include a component for ‘local content’.
(E.g. China & The Philippines)
Republic of Korea:
Credit System
Curriculum Review Cycles
Concluding Thoughts
Teaching Hours
Teacher Motivation
Teacher Competence
Pre-service Training
Quality of Teaching - Teachers
Majumdar, S. (2012). New Challenges in TVET Teacher Education. UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter, vol. 13 no. 2. pp. 3-6.
An evolving role ...
What other 'pre-requisites'?
Selection among 'best' students?
Passion for teaching?
Communication & leadership skills?
Potential role model?
Taken from: UNESCO. 2012. Asia-Pacific End of Decade Notes on Education for All: Quality Education
Quality of pre-service training?
Support for beginning teachers?
Percentage of trained teachers by level of education
= Teacher effectiveness?
Use of suitable
Use of instructional
Learning outcomes
in students?
Creative and innovative
of teachers?
Enough to motivate
and retain teachers?
Professional Development?
Professional Autonomy?
Source: Source: Jensen, B., Hunter, A., Sonnemann, J., and Burns, T. (2012) Catching up: learning from the best school systems in East Asia, Grattan Institute. http://grattan.edu.au/static/files/assets/00d8aaf4/130_report_learning_from_the_best_detail.pdf
Large class size
Few teaching hours
Small class size
More teaching hours
Non-teaching time for:
Classroom observation
Team teaching
School-based research
Active collaboration
Reduced teaching time
could allow teachers to focus on activities which have

a proven impact on learning.
The method and process of imparting knowledge/skill.
Linking Curriculum, Pedagogy & Assessment
Alternative instructional strategies
Traditional instructional strategies
Learning by rote
'Teaching to the test'
Learning by inquiry
Learning by interacting
Learning by doing
Learning in and of the real world
Learning by reflecting
With appropriate inclusion of
The Arts (e.g. singing, dancing and drawing)
Hands-on activities
Collaborative learning
Differentiated instruction
And more ......
The 'success' of curriculum and teaching is seen in the students acquiring of learning outcomes.
Examples of Framework:

Understanding by Design (UbD)

Teaching for Understanding (TfU)
A guide to help keep the focus of educational practice on developing student understanding.
Generative Topics
Understanding Goals
Performances of Understanding
Ongoing Assessment
Understanding by Design® (UbD) is a framework for improving student achievement.
Emphasizing the teacher's critical role as a designer of student learning, UbD works within the standards-driven curriculum to help teachers clarify learning goals, devise revealing assessments of student understanding, and craft effective and engaging learning activities.
The Australian Curriculum will equip all young Australians with the essential skills, knowledge and capabilities to thrive and compete in a globalised world and information rich workplaces of the current century.
The aim of the school curriculum is to develop fully the talents and capacities of all students in order that they become able people, with parallel and balanced intellectual, spiritual, mental and physical growth and development.
The new education plan, SPN 21, structure takes into consideration key aspects of quality education for nation building and human capital development. It aims to achieve quality education through the provision of a balanced curriculum which is benchmarked against creditable quality assurance or assessment systems of international standards.
In Japan, the standard nationwide curriculum known as the ‘Course of Study’, aims to strengthen the teaching of basic and fundamental contents and to develop education considering individual students needs and abilities.
New Zealand
The New Zealand Curriculum aims to contribute to all students having a strong foundation for learning, high levels of achievement, and a lifelong engagement in learning.
The secondary education curriculum aims to raise the quality of Filipino students and empower them for lifelong learning by attaining functional literacy.
Instructional time
Learning Outcomes
Address predictable obstacles:
Teacher absenteeism
Management of classroom time
Student absenteeism
Administrative workload of teachers
Prepare for unpredictable circumstances:
Inclement weather conditions
Source: J. Saphier, M.A. Haley-Speca and R. Gower. 2009. The Skillful Teacher: Building Your Teaching Skills. Research for Better Teaching
Work of UNESCO Bangkok
In the Asia-Pacific ...
Public examinations ...
School / Classroom
School-based Assessment
Challenges & Considerations
Source: Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, State of Victoria, Australia

Assessment of, for and as learning

Participation in International Assessments

Taken from: UNESCO. 2012. Asia-Pacific End of Decade Notes on Education for All: Quality Education

PISA scores: comparing learning outcomes – between countries (Average scores for reading, math & science in the AP region, PISA 2009

How do Asia-Pacific countries fare?

Narrow testing:
Reduces the vision of learning outcomes and the purpose of education

What about development of the whole person:
Values? Attitudes? Emotional development? Transversal skills?
Source: UNESCO Bangkok 2011

Use of results from international assessments

By offering developing countries more tailored and relevant policy analysis and insights.

Enhanced PISA survey instruments that are more relevant to developing countries (while using scores on the same scales as the main PISA assessment).
Recent developments in international assessment:
PISA for Development

5 Main Outputs

Contextual questionnaires and data-collection instruments enhanced
The descriptive power of cognitive assessments enhanced
An approach developed, including a methodology and analytical framework, for including out-of-school 15 year-olds
Country capacity strengthened in terms of assessment, analysis and use of results for monitoring and improvement
Peer-to-peer learning opportunities identified related to participation in PISA
Its first report 
Toward Universal Learning: What Every Child Should Learn
, presents a framework for what every child and youth should learn and be able to do by the time they reach post-primary age.
Recent developments in international assessment:
Learning Metrics Task Force

Approaches to National Assessments (Public Examinations)

Pressure from increased workload/ preparation

Extra paid private tutoring
outside the classroom

“Teaching to the test” which
leads to narrowing of the
curriculum or learning area

Focusing on performance of certain groups of students to lift overall performance of the class/ school.

Side effects from public examinations

Approaches to National Assessments
School-based assessment (SBA) refers to assessments administered in schools and generally marked by the students’ own teachers

Increasing validity of assessment (e.g. capturing outcomes that may not be able to be captured via a one-off public examination)
Reducing dependence on examinations
Capturing a broader range of outcomes including non-cognitive ones
Obtaining a picture of student performance over time
Motivating/empowering students and teachers

Can be either formative or summative
School-based assessment
In some countries, SBA has been the norm for a long time, including: Australia (Queensland, ACT), England, Finland, New Zealand, Scotland and Sweden.

In some countries/jurisdictions of the AP region, there is a new and increasing trend towards SBA reform, including in: Hong Kong SAR (China), Malaysia and Singapore.

Some debates about the cultural appropriateness in the Asian context, where there is a strong culture of examinations and high-stakes assessment.
SBA: Long traditions and new reforms

between accountability and a greater emphasis on 21st century skills

assessment of 21st century skills

between curriculum, teaching and assessment

Limited capacity
(test design, administration, data collection, data analysis, etc.) in some countries for rigorous assessment

Challenges of
validity and reliability
(and other issues of psychometric quality) in assessments

Lack of stakeholder
of assessment reforms

World Bank/SABER Framework for Building a More Effective Student Assessment System

Policy considerations
Formally established on 28 March 2013

Currently 15 institutional members (including NIETS) and
1 individual member from a range of countries/jurisdictions

Analytical work and technical support

Analytical work on assessment issues
in the region (including survey report on
the use of assessments)

Technical support/advice to Member
States upon request e.g. Malaysia,
Myanmar and Thailand

Assessment and 21st century skills
Multi-country research on learning to live together

(skills such as teamwork, communication, civic participation,
intercultural understanding, etc.) through education

Reflections around the
future of education
and the place of education in the post-2015 development agenda: Third High-Level Expert Meeting focusing on
pedagogical approaches towards holistic development of learners
(Oct 2013)

Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net): 2013 collaborative research on
promoting transversal/21st century skills in education policy and practice
in Asia and the Pacific (10 countries)

UNESCO-RCP collaborative research : 2013 research on
promoting transversal/transferable skills through TVET and vocational teacher education
in Asia (15 countries)

Policy mapping and research on
arts and physical education
: Research on how these subjects contribute to acquisition of both cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes
Framework for discussion of Assessment Issues
Global Developments ...
National Assessments ...
1. Shift the focus and investment in global education from access to
access plus learning
2. Provide children and youth with
opportunities to develop competencies across seven domains
of learning starting in early childhood through adolescence.
3. Track a
small set of key learning indicators
at the global level, including traditional indicators such as literacy and numeracy, as well as new indicators to be developed.
Support countries
in measuring and improve learning in these as well as additional domains based on national priorities.
Use assessment data
to identify and address inequities, particularly within countries.
7. For indicators tracked at the global level, make assessment tools, documentation and data available as a
public good
8. As a global community,
take action collectively
to ensure children’s right to quality education.
Its second report:
A Global Framework for Measuring Learning
lists 6 areas of measurement for tracking at the global level.
Access to and completion
of learning opportunities
to a breadth of learning opportunities across all seven domains
Early childhood
experiences that promote development and learning in multiple domains.
4) The ability to
read a variety of texts
5) The ability to
use numbers
and apply this knowledge to real-life situations.
6) An
adaptable, flexible skill set
to meet the demands of the 21st century
Its third report:
Recommendations from the Learning Metrics Task Force
presents 8 recommendations.
Assessment of, for and as learning.
Networking and sharing
The school curriculum serves the aims of basic education, as defined in the 2001 State Council Resolution on the Reform and Development of Basic Education:
•Enabling the development of a new, well-educated, idealistic, moral and patriotic generation with a love for socialism, and who will inherit fine traditions of the Chinese nation
•Develop an awareness of socialist democracy and law as well as respect for state laws and social norms
•Develop appropriate world outlook, life outlook and values
•Develop a sense of social responsibility
•Develop an innovative spirit, practice skills, a knowledge base of sciences and humanities, and an awareness of environmental protection issues
•Develop good physical health and psychological qualities, healthy aesthetical tastes and lifestyles.
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