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SVA Edwards 2. Greeks & Romans
Transcript of SVA Edwards 2. Greeks & Romans
Civilizations Greeks &
Romans Cristendom Revolutions Globalization Jason D. Edwards Renaissance &
ASSESSMENTS sample debates The Greek Renaissance was a period of extraordinary artistic and intellectual vitality Greece's mountainous terrain created a decentralized political system largely free of oppression Greek gods were viewed as generally benevolent, but they had to be appeased via offerings and suitable ceremonies Public games such as the Olympics were a way of celebrating human perfection and heroism -Poetry and art broke new frontiers.
-The economy expanded.
-The polis, or independent city-state, emerged.
This occured between 800 to 600 B.C. Results: -The anthropomorphic gods intervened frequently in human affairs.
-Priests and priestesses exercised little political power.
-Each city had its one patron god from the pantheon common to all Greeks.
-The belief that if people became too arrogant, Nemesis, an avenging force, would sweep down and destroy them.
Characteristics of Greek religion: Result of this geography... It divided Greece into many small valleys that led the Greeks to develop independent states. -Contests among amateur athletes for honor.
-Held in honor of the goddess Athena.
-Held once every four years on Mt. Olympus.
-Tools for building patriotic fervor. In Ancient Greece, the Olypmic games were: their solution was to export people to independent colonies overseas. As the Greek population boomed
By the end of the period of colonization, the Greeks had spread throughout the Mesopotamian region. Their colonies included many of the great ports of modern Europe such as Byzantium, Naples, Marseille and Syracuse. The adoption of an alphabet
was initially important for the ancient Greeks because laws could be made readily available, facilitating public involvement in government. The alphabet gave ordinary people the ability to grasp and circulate information more rapidly, with dynamic consequences for political life. Archaic Greek literature Greek authors began to use literature as a form of frank self-expression. was particularly innovative because Open sharing of personal themes and self-revelation was a typically Greek kind of literature that had no predecessors in the ancient Eastern cultures.
-Were city-states consisting of an urban center and the surrounding farm country.
-Though originally ruled by kings, by 700 B.C. they were dominated by landowning aristocrats.
-In the seventh and sixth centuries (B.C.), ordinary people gained a greater role in government.
-Had large open spaces called the agora that served as a main public square and civic center.
-Only male citizens could vote, pass on their property through wills, and generally participate in civil life. The Greek polis... The economy of the polis -The primary activity was agriculture.
-Because of the poor soil, Greeks also engaged in fishing and trade.
-Slaves played a vital role in the economy.
-A shortage of food was a constant threat to economic stability.
-Was a cosmopolitan commercial center.
-It's navy fleet made it the leading sea power.
-Was governed as a democracy.
-Political reforms in Athens broke up the power of the oligarchy.
The quality of life in the Greek polis was quite modest given the scarcity of resources. Sparta Athens -Was a closed, militaristic society
-Had an army that made it the dominant land power
-Was governed as a monarchy
-Political power was in the hands of an oligarchy
Contrasts We know little about the internal workings of most poleis, but we know Sparta and Athens the best So the Persian King Darius attacked Athens because it had helped Greek cities in Ionia revolt against his rule. The Athenians supported the Ionian revolt
against Persia by sending 20 warships. The Greeks won the critical battle of Salamis because Athens had created a powerful fleet.
The Greek military commander, Themistocles, used deception to outmaneuver and destroy a superior Persian naval force. Taxation in the polis paid for the upkeep of walls, drains, roads, harbors, and the like. (though Greeks had little grasp of the mechanics of public finance. Apollo Atlas Zeus Aphrodite Anthropomorphic = having human characteristics archaic = ancient 1. Is there evidence from the reading that Athenians valued learning?
2. Of the ancient cities we've studied so far would you choose to live in Athens? Why or why not?
3. What do think the Athenians saw as desirable in a civilization? How did they seem to pursue this?
4. Do you agree with the Athenian emphasis? Would you add other goals? Socratic Circles ATHENS plural of polis = poleis SPARTA 1. What did you find suprising or interesting?
2. Of the ancient cities we've studied so far would you choose to live in Sparta? Why or why not?
3. What do think the Spartans saw as desirable in a civilization? How did they seem to pursue this?
4. Do you agree with the Spartan emphasis? What would you change and/or keep? One element of democracy in the Spartan oligarchy was that the assembly could be dismissed by the ephors and council.
Our first information about an Athenian reform was the introduction of a law defining a difference between voluntary and involuntary homicide.
The supreme achievements of the epic poetic tradition of the Greek Renaissance are the Iliad and the Odyssey ascribed to Homer Pericles formed an aliance among the Greek poleis called the Delian League -each contributing to the building of a powerful navy. After successfully leading the Greek resistance to Persia, Athens gradually transformed the Delian League into an empire.
The most important consequence of the Peloponnesian War was that the war left Greece exhausted and demoralized.
Greek philosophy began from the assumption that there is an order in the universe that humans can discover through reason.
The earliest Greek philosophers in Miletus focused on determining the fundamental composition of the universe.
Pythagoras' assertion that mathematical relationships are the key to understanding the universe presaged the discovery of mathematical relationships within all things.
The Sophists taught their students how to achieve success in life.
Socrates' primary legacy was pursuing moral truths through a process of questioning and logical analysis.
Socrates' pupil Plato regarded the material world as a reflection of the eternal forms that constitute true reality.
Plato's pupil Aristotle differed from his teacher in that he focused on understanding the material world.
Aristophanes' comedies were social and political satires.
Greek historians were distinguished by their objective investigation into the causes of events.
After the Peloponnesian War, the Greek city-states were weakened by chronic warfare.
Phillip II of Macedonia used all of the following to establish control over Greece:
-a powerful army.
What made Alexander the Great great was that he extended Greek rule over the entire civilized world between Greece and India.
Debate Safety and stability are a civilization's top priorities and these are best acheived through closed borders and a strong defense. Valid examples:
-Present-day nations Our MOTION: Side 1: What is desirable in a civilization?
Side 2: How is this best acheived? -Side by side responses
-Your stance on the motion and main argument(s)
-At least 1/2 page of notes that you will use for your opening statement By the end of the period you must show your teacher: The Spartan oligarchy consisted of five ephors (aka rulers). The Peloponnesian War of 431–404 B.C. was fought between Athens and Sparta with their respective allies, occasioned largely by Spartan opposition to the Delian League. It ended in the total defeat of Athens and the transfer, for a brief period, of the leadership of Greece to Sparta. Essay What is desirable in a civilization and how is this best acheived? Must use specific examples from the following:
-Athens (at least 2)
-Sparta (at least 2)
-Present-day nations (at least 1) PROMPT: Side 1: Write your thesis statement (main argument)
Side 2: List specific examples that defend your stance (position)
On a clean sheet of notebook paper...
Incorporate these notes into an organized essay.
Intro paragraph -sets up your thesis statement and road map
Body -develops each main point in seperate paragraphs
Conclusion -briefly summarizes of your position and reasoning
Due by the beginning of class tommorrow. The Athenian statesman Pericles:
-sponsored construction of the greatest Greek temple, the Parthenon.
-dominated Athens through its democratic institutions.
-never held high civil office.
-was beloved by the common people of the city.
Plato's Cave 1.Describe how the people in the cave are situated in Plato's parable. Why can't they move their legs or necks to take a look around? What is the only thing they are capable of seeing? What is their only source of light?
2. What do these prisoners trapped in the cavern believe is real?
3. How do the prisoners react when they first see sunlight? Why will the prisoner need time to adjust to the world outside the cave?
4.According to Plato, how would the people in the cave react to an escapee who tried to explain the truth to them, or who came down and broke their chains to set them free? The first Persian invasion was led by Darius but was ultimately stopped at the battle of Marathon.
The second Persion invasion was led by Xerxis II (Darius' son). It was carefully planned and most Greek city-states surrendered (but not Athens or Sparta).
Thermopylae (around 480 B.C.) was expected to be an easy Persian win, but the out-numbered Spartan resistance caused Persia to retreat to Salamis. 300? The Spartan leader Leonidas dismissed the bulk of the Greek army, and remained to guard the rear entrance to Thermopylae with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others, the vast majority of whom were killed (by 7,000 Persians). Aristotle's Rhetoric 1. What is your reaction to Aristotle's approach and argument?
2. "The virtues, too, must be something good; for it is by possessing these that we are in a good condition, and they tend to produce good works and good actions." Based on this statement, does the end justify the means?
3. Do you agree with this reasoning: "Pleasure, again, must be a good thing, since it is the nature of all animals to aim at it"?
4. How do you define 'that which is good?' What else would you add to your list? Epicureanism taught that we should concern ourselves with leading pleasurable lives, avoiding physical and mental pain.
The Hellenistic economy was characterized by all of the following:
-the scale of economic activity was far greater than before.
-agriculture remained the dominant activity.
-long-distance trade grew enormously.
-economic development supported the growth of magnificent cities.
-vast estates tended to predominate in the agricultural sector
The successor states after Alexander's empire broke up were characterized by all of the following:
-the rise of the wealthy classes.
The Academy Alexander & Aristotle Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza Hellenistic religion was a wild a blend -combining varied elements of philosophy and mysticism from the known world Alexander the Great 1. Summarize the main message and tone of his speech.
2. If you were a soldier how would you have responded to his approach?
3. Is there a difference between power, leadership and influence? In what ways did Alexander use (or fail to use) each of these?
4. What is your opinion of the way Alexander acted as a leader (seeming to favor the Persians, killing the leaders of the mutiny and dismissing the rest, winnng the soldiers over through shame with minimum bloodshed)? Priesthoods were mainly political offices, held only by men. ROMANS Many of Augustus's accomplishments led to the revival and maintenance of traditional Roman values. By 23 B.C., Octavian's imperium covered the entire Roman world. Octavian's army, led by Marcus Agrippa, defeated Antony at the Battle of Actium along the coast of Greece. The Italian landscape was believed by the best Roman poets to have been of unsurpassed beauty. The constitution of the Roman Republic was never a written document but rather a set of procedures and customs. The "Struggle of the Orders" had the effect of making the Roman state a more efficient machine for military conquest by making the plebeians more willing to fight for the nation. Rome showed great administrative skill in organizing those that they conquered into a federated system that gave members a certain amount of autonomy. Their victory in the Punic Wars gave the Romans control of all of Carthage's territory in Europe including almost all of Spain. Rome's wars with Macedonia drew her into central Europe as far east as Armenia, thus changing the course of European history. As more and more of Rome's enemies were defeated and as the need for unity against outside enemies declined, so too did the internal cohesiveness (unity) of Roman society. The poor often became prey to demagogues and warlords bent on destroying the Republic and seizing power. The Romans implanted in Gaul the Latin language (the origin of modern French), Roman technology, and Roman culture. The conspirators who killed Caesar were led by two of his lieutenants, Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. Italy's geography is characterized by:
-the peninsula is bisected by the Apennine mountain range.
-in the north, the Po River runs through a large, fertile valley.
-the mountains are so gentle that they can be used for pasturing.
-the mountains made the task of forging national unity a difficult one.
Around 500 B.C., Roman government included:
-two consuls, elected annually.
-a Senate consisting of men who had held elected office.
-assemblies that included all adult male citizens.
-the occasional appointment of a "dictator" whose term was six months.
The outcome of the "Struggle of the Orders" between 494 and 287 B.C. was that
-the patrician class was able to stifle all attempts at reform by assassinating plebeian leaders.
-the plebeians destroyed patrician dominance and installed direct control of the government by the masses.
-the plebeians took control of the state, but left the patricians significant ceremonial functions.
-the abolition of slavery within the Roman Republic but not in the territories.
Over time women's status in Republican Rome changed in this way: they were originally subordinate to a rigid patriarchy, women gradually won significant, if still limited, freedoms.
Roman expansion in Italy was possible because conquered states were integrated into the Roman federation. The outcome of the Punic Wars was that Rome destroyed Carthage and took control of the western Mediterranean.
The Roman conquest of the eastern Mediterranea occurred piecemeal, (in unsystematic partial stages) as one conquest generated conflicts that led to further conquests.
Roman conquest of the Mediterranean was based on:
-provincial support for the Roman republic.
-absolute rule of overseas provinces by Roman governors.
-a powerful and resilient military machine.
-a tax collection system led by the equestrian class. Julius Caesar extended Rome's control over Spain, Syria, Armenia and Germany.
To secure his power, Julius Caesar:
-assumed the positions of both dictator and consul.
-led an army on Rome.
-reduced the number of members of the Senate to ensure closer loyalty.
-built alliances with potential rivals.
Julius Caesar was killed by aristocrats, who resented his usurpation of their traditional dominance of the state.
Octavian ultimately won control over Rome by defeating Antony and Cleopatra.
Octavian secured his control over Rome by:
-restoring the Republic while dominating it behind the scenes.
-gaining the powers and populist stature of a tribune.
-securing command of most of the army.
-placing governors loyal to him in key imperial positions.
During his reign, Augustus accomplished:
-ending the series of civil wars.
-establishing secure borders.
-providing cash payments from the public treasury to soldiers who had served for twenty years.
-advancing the rights of women.
In the early Roman Republic, public religion was closely connected with the interests of the state.
WHAT MADE ROME GREAT? Socratic Circles Archimedes' Engines 1. According to Plutarch, what was Archimedes' purpose in making the model 'engines?' How and why did the king use these invetions for different purposes?
2. Describe the scenes of this Roman attack on Syracuse.
3. If you were a Roman general (like Marcellus) watching Archemedes' engines wipe out your fleet and troops in this fashion, what would have been your reaction?
4. A nation's military often sponsors scientific and technological innovation. Do you see this as mostly positive or mostly negative. (What are the benefits and dangers?)
5. My question: Hannibal Crossing Alps 1. Describe each obstacle Hannibal and his army had to overcome.
2. What motivated Hannibal to carry out this difficult mission? What were some of the reasons for his success?
3. Would you have followed Hannibal? Why?
4. In light of this example, what is the relationship between influence, control and power?
5. My question is... Rome's Uniqueness Romulus & Remus Important historians: Livy & Plutarch
Main poet of the Latin language: Horace Citizens vote (Democracy) SENATE with elected Representatives (Republic) Two CONSULS (executives) One CEASAR (in wartime) Government Founding Myth Agricola 1. How persuasive was each general (judging by Aristotles' three rhetorical means)?
2. If you were either general, what might you have done similarly and/or differently to prepare your troops for battle?
3. How effective are 'motivational speeches' in various contexts (when are and when aren't they useful)?
4. When are your words most constructive? Are they ever destructive? How can you consistently practice uplifting speech?
5. My question is... Cleopatra 1. Based on Plutarch’s story, what is your impression of Queen Cleopatra?
2. If politics can be understood as the strategic application of leverage, in what ways was Cleopatra a good 'politician?'
3. Analyze this statement: "Power is getting what you want, when you want it."
4. How is manipulation different from persuasion? Is manipulation always destructive or can it sometimes be used virtuously?
5. My question is...