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World Organ Market Issues

A presentation for PHL 444
by

Brett McDowell

on 19 April 2010

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Transcript of World Organ Market Issues

Will the Ban or Regulation of International Organ Markets Truly Solve the Issues They Create? How The Organ Market Works Seller
needs money
unaware of risks Finds a broker Broker offers a small sum, assures seller they will be fine Seller Agrees Broker Sends them to a hospital where the organ is harvested
Seller is left with a disfiguring wound that may become infected Seller returns home Seller is...
paid less than the broker agreed
likely to suffer from regret, depression and discrimination
typically unable to perform as well at jobs involving physical labor
likely to encounter medical complications due to a lack of follow-up care By Brett McDowell
Psychology Major
For PHL 444
Buyer
needs an organ
cannot receive domestic transplant due to waiting list or medical complications
has plenty of money Meanwhile... Finds a broker Broker offers to provide the buyer with the organ transplant the buyer needs for a price that may range from $70,000 to $160,000 The Sources of the Organ Markets Why Wouldn't Legalization Benefit People? Then What Can Be Done? Why Not Ban the Organ Market Then? buyer agrees to offer Buyer receives organ transplant and...
is more likely to die from procedure than normal
may only benefit minimally from the transplant
is more likely to experience complications from the procedure including the transmission of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Thus... The Seller:
suffers physically and emotionally for minor compensation
The Buyer:
pays a substantial sum of money for an increased likelihood of complications during the procedure and for an organ that may not benefit them very much
The Broker:
makes a substantial sum of money by exploiting both the buyer and seller India
Despite legislation banning the selling of organs, the underground organ market is now going through a resurgance.
An estimated 2,000 Indians sell a kidney each year
The ban on organ markets in India has also led to an increase in the size of organ markets elsewhere, particularly in Pakistan and the Philippines. Pakistan
in 2005 approximately 2/3 of the 2,000 kidney transplants were performed on foreigners Philippines
In 2003 110 of 468 kidney transplants were
performed on foreigners China
More than half of the 900 liver and kidney transplants in just one major clinic in 2004 were for non-Chinese citizens
In 2005 12,000 kidney and liver transplants were performed in total. other organ exporting countries include: Bolivia Brazil Iraq Iran Israel Maldova Peru Turkey While a legalized organ market would protect organ sellers from scams and guarentee their pay, it would still fail to address a number of key issues. Sellers would still suffer physically
Even with increased regulation of the organ removal procedure, having a kidney removed still takes a toll on the body. Sellers would still suffer mentally
Legislation does nothing to address the social stigmas associated with the selling of organs that is commonly found in eastern cultures.
Accordingly, sellers would still experience regret, depression, and discrimination after selling an organ. Most sellers would still suffer economically
The physical toll of having a kidney removed often impairs a person's ability to perform manual labor, reducing their earning potential or even costing them their job.
What economic gains a seller receives often go towards debts, and the transaction often has too great of a negative impact on the seller's income in the long-term.
Complications from the surgery or loss of the organ may lead to additional expenses. As Monir Moniruzzaman has suggested, the market itself is a violent structural exploitation of the poor
The vast majority of sellers are poor while the vast majority of buyers are wealthy.
Accordingly, the poor in need of organs are unable to purchase them and few, if any, wealthy individuals would sell their organs. While the ban of organ markets in a country has been shown to reduce the amount of organs sold, organ markets still continue to exist and, as shown in the case of India... Still, even if all countries were to pass legislation banning organ markets, an issue remains... The majority of countries that have an organ market are also
very impoverished. As such, they do not posses the means to enforce a ban on organ trade. Furthermore, the increased difficulty in securing organs for trade on the black market may result in an increase in the value for organs, actually benefitting the organ brokers who aren't caught. Education Donor Encouragement If implemented properly, educational campaigns could cripple the organ markets. By informing potential organ sellers of the risks and harms to their body, mind, and finances involved in the organ trade, it may be possible to reduce the supply of willing sellers to such an extent that the organ market would no longer be a lucrative opportunity to organ brokers. By informing potential organ buyers of the increased risk of infection and other complications during the transplantation, the demand for organ markets may also decrease, though admittedly, many buyers turn to the organ market as a last resort, and would not be disuaded by such knowledge. Unlike the common Eastern view of selling one's organs, the Eastern view of organ donation is, much like the Western view, very positive. Hence, the negative psychological effects experienced by organ sellers are not experienced by organ donors. By promoting the donation of organs to family members and the needy in one's community, the demand for organs previously filled by the organ market can, with time, be filled by willful donations. This system would be a particularly nice alternative to the organ markets since it would benefit both the poor and the wealthy instead of only benefitting the wealthy at the expense of the poor. Admittedly, this is a task that would be particularly difficult given that most organ markets are located in impoverished areas that may be difficult to reach with the necessary information. That said, this strategy should be very effective in populations in and around urban areas and the information given there will likely spread to the more rural areas in time. And So We Return to the Original Question And We Arrive At My Answer: In the end, the regulation of organ markets only facilitates a class-based system of structural, violent exploitation of the poor by the wealthy. On the other hand, the banning of organ markets may not be enforceable, increases the value of organs, and may just shift the problem to other countries. However, by addressing the underlying causes of the organ market, specifically, the lack of knowledge among potential sellers and inadequate amount of organ donations, the international organ markets, and all the issues they bring to the world, may eventually become a thing of the past.
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